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Biomass Energy (Bio-energy)

 
     
 
In Biomass : A Renewable Source of Energy much has been described about biomass and its resources. In this context various techniques for the conversion of biomass into energy have also been discussed.

However, in the present section different forms of energy obtainable from a number of sources are described in detail.


Biomass based energy (bio-energy), derived from sun via biological routes, has been fulfilling the human need for centuries as fossil fuel. With the expanding world population, increasing energy demand and diminishing stock of fossil fuel, most of the countries have paid much attention on the bioenergy programmes.

 

However, there is basic need to develop technologies and standardize the techniques, to reach to village level. Among the various non-conventional sources of energy, forest biomass plays a significant role in solving the fuel wood crisis. It is obvious that one-seventh of world's fuel supplies are biomass. This figure is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil per day.


The area of bio-energy involves sophisticated research and development work in botany (plant physiology and genetics), agriculture, forestry,phytochemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, fuel research, heat physics and many aspects of engineering, so that a complete package from agriculture, processing, conversion, engine systems and delivery to users is developed (Khoshoo, 1988).

Many countries viz., Bangladesh, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sweden, U.K., U.S.A., are promoting research and development activities in bioenergy. In addition, several international agencies, such as Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Development Research Centre (IDRC), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO), United Nations Environmental Organizations (UNEP), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and World Health Organization (WHO) are also engaged in bioenergy research and development programmes.
Content

Energy plantations

 

Social forestry

 

Silviculture energy farms (short rotation forestry)

   

Advantages of short rotation management

Petroleum plants (Petroplants)

 

Hydrocarbon from higher Plants

   

Hevea Rubber

 

 

Euphorbia

   

Guayule and Russian dandalion

   

Aak

 

Algal hydrocarbons

Alcohols : the liquid fuel

 

General account

 

Ethanol production

 

Fermentable substrate

 

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials

   

Effect of substrate composition on hydrolysis

 

Fermentation

 

Recovery of ethanol

Gaseous fuels : biogas and hydrogen

 

What is biogas

 

Biogas technology in India

 

Benefits from biogas plants

 

Feed stock materials

 

Biogas production anaerobic digestion

   

Solubilization

   

Acidogenesis

   

Methanogenesis-methanogens, mechanism of methane production

 

Biogas production from differ­ent feed stocks

 

 

Salvinia

   

Water hyacinth

   

Municipal wastes

 

Factors affecting methane formation

Hydrogen : a new fuel

 

Photobiological process of H2 production

   

Hydrogenase and H2 production

   

Halobacteria

 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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