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  Section: General Biotechnology / Biotechnology & Environment
 
 
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Biotechnology & Environment

 
     
 
Content
Biomass : A Renewable Source of Energy

Energy sources : A general account 

 

Nuclear energy

 

Fossil fuel energy

 

Non-fossil and non-nuclear energy

Biomass as source of energy

 

Composition of biomass

 

 

Cellulose

 

 

Hemicellulose

 

 

Lignin

 

Terrestrial biomass

 

Aquatic biomass

 

 

Salvinia

 

 

Water hyacinth

 

Wastes as renewable source of energy

 

 

Composition of wastes

 

 

Sources of wastes (Industries, agriculture, forestry, municipal sources)

Biomass conversion

 

Non-biological process

 

 

Direct combustion-hog fuel

 

 

Pyrolysis

 

 

Gasification

 

 

Liquefaction

 

Biological process

 

 

Enzymatic digestion

 

 

Anaerobic digestion

 

 

Aerobic digestion



Biomass Energy (Bio-energy)

Energy plantations

 

Social forestry

 

Silviculture energy farms (short rotation forestry)

   

Advantages of short rotation management

Petroleum plants (Petroplants)

 

Hydrocarbon from higher Plants

   

Hevea Rubber

 

 

Euphorbia

   

Guayule and Russian dandalion

   

Aak

 

Algal hydrocarbons

Alcohols : the liquid fuel

 

General account

 

Ethanol production

 

Fermentable substrate

 

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials

   

Effect of substrate composition on hydrolysis

 

Fermentation

 

Recovery of ethanol

Gaseous fuels : biogas and hydrogen

 

What is biogas

 

Biogas technology in India

 

Benefits from biogas plants

 

Feed stock materials

 

Biogas production anaerobic digestion

   

Solubilization

   

Acidogenesis

   

Methanogenesis-methanogens, mechanism of methane production

 

Biogas production from differ­ent feed stocks

 

 

Salvinia

   

Water hyacinth

   

Municipal wastes

 

Factors affecting methane formation

Hydrogen : a new fuel

 

Photobiological process of H2 production

   

Hydrogenase and H2 production

   

Halobacteria



Environmental Biotechnology

Bioremediation

 

In situ bioremediation

   

Intrinsic bioremediation

   

Engineered in situ bioremediation

 

Ex situ bioremediation

   

Solid phase system (composting, composting process)

   

Slurry phase system (aerated laggons, low shear airlift reactor)

   

Factors affecting slurry phase bioremediation

 

Bioremediation of hydrocarbon

 

 

Use of mixture of bacteria

   

Use of genetically engineered bacterial strains 

 

Bioremediation of Industrial wastes

   

Bioremediation of dyes

   

Bioremediation of heavy metals

   

Bioremediation of coal waste through VAM fungi

 

Bioremediation of xenobiotics

   

Microbial degradation of xenobiotics

   

Gene manipulation of pesticide-degrading microorganisms

Utilization of sewage, and agro-wastes

 

Production of single cell protein

 

Biogas from sewage

 

Mushroom production on agro-wastes

 

Vermicomposting

Microbial leaching (bioleaching)   

 

Microorganisms used in leaching

 

Chemistry of leaching

   

Direct leaching

   

Indirect leaching

 

Leaching process (slope leaching heap leaching in situ leaching)

 

Examples of bioleaching

   

Copper leaching

 

 

Uranium leaching

   

Gold and silver leaching

   

Silica leaching

Hazards of environmental engineering

 

Survival of released GMMs in the environment

   

Adaptive mutagenesis in GMMs

   

Gene transfer from GMMs into other microorganisms

   

Gene transfer via conjugative transposons

   

Effect of environmental factors on gene transfer

 

Ecological impact of GMMs released into the environment

   

Growth inhibition of natural strains

   

Growth stimulation of indigenous strains

   

Replacement of natural strains

 

Monitoring of GEMs in the environment

   

Risk assessment of the GEMs released into the environment



 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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