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  Section: General Biotechnology / Biotechnology & Environment
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Biotechnology & Environment

Biomass : A Renewable Source of Energy

Energy sources : A general account 


Nuclear energy


Fossil fuel energy


Non-fossil and non-nuclear energy

Biomass as source of energy


Composition of biomass











Terrestrial biomass


Aquatic biomass






Water hyacinth


Wastes as renewable source of energy



Composition of wastes



Sources of wastes (Industries, agriculture, forestry, municipal sources)

Biomass conversion


Non-biological process



Direct combustion-hog fuel











Biological process



Enzymatic digestion



Anaerobic digestion



Aerobic digestion

Biomass Energy (Bio-energy)

Energy plantations


Social forestry


Silviculture energy farms (short rotation forestry)


Advantages of short rotation management

Petroleum plants (Petroplants)


Hydrocarbon from higher Plants


Hevea Rubber





Guayule and Russian dandalion




Algal hydrocarbons

Alcohols : the liquid fuel


General account


Ethanol production


Fermentable substrate


Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials


Effect of substrate composition on hydrolysis




Recovery of ethanol

Gaseous fuels : biogas and hydrogen


What is biogas


Biogas technology in India


Benefits from biogas plants


Feed stock materials


Biogas production anaerobic digestion






Methanogenesis-methanogens, mechanism of methane production


Biogas production from differ­ent feed stocks





Water hyacinth


Municipal wastes


Factors affecting methane formation

Hydrogen : a new fuel


Photobiological process of H2 production


Hydrogenase and H2 production



Environmental Biotechnology



In situ bioremediation


Intrinsic bioremediation


Engineered in situ bioremediation


Ex situ bioremediation


Solid phase system (composting, composting process)


Slurry phase system (aerated laggons, low shear airlift reactor)


Factors affecting slurry phase bioremediation


Bioremediation of hydrocarbon



Use of mixture of bacteria


Use of genetically engineered bacterial strains 


Bioremediation of Industrial wastes


Bioremediation of dyes


Bioremediation of heavy metals


Bioremediation of coal waste through VAM fungi


Bioremediation of xenobiotics


Microbial degradation of xenobiotics


Gene manipulation of pesticide-degrading microorganisms

Utilization of sewage, and agro-wastes


Production of single cell protein


Biogas from sewage


Mushroom production on agro-wastes



Microbial leaching (bioleaching)   


Microorganisms used in leaching


Chemistry of leaching


Direct leaching


Indirect leaching


Leaching process (slope leaching heap leaching in situ leaching)


Examples of bioleaching


Copper leaching



Uranium leaching


Gold and silver leaching


Silica leaching

Hazards of environmental engineering


Survival of released GMMs in the environment


Adaptive mutagenesis in GMMs


Gene transfer from GMMs into other microorganisms


Gene transfer via conjugative transposons


Effect of environmental factors on gene transfer


Ecological impact of GMMs released into the environment


Growth inhibition of natural strains


Growth stimulation of indigenous strains


Replacement of natural strains


Monitoring of GEMs in the environment


Risk assessment of the GEMs released into the environment


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