Algae, Tree, Herbs, Bush, Shrub, Grasses, Vines, Fern, Moss, Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Fern Ally, Flower, Photosynthesis, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, carbohydrate, vitamins, amino acids, botany, lipids, proteins, cell, cell wall, biotechnology, metabolities, enzymes, agriculture, horticulture, agronomy, bryology, plaleobotany, phytochemistry, enthnobotany, anatomy, ecology, plant breeding, ecology, genetics, chlorophyll, chloroplast, gymnosperms, sporophytes, spores, seed, pollination, pollen, agriculture, horticulture, taxanomy, fungi, molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinfomatics, microbiology, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, chemistry, cytogenetics, bryology, ethnobotany, plant pathology, methodolgy, research institutes, scientific journals, companies, farmer, scientists, plant nutrition
Select Language:
 
 
 
 
Main Menu
Please click the main subject to get the list of sub-categories
 
Services offered
 
 
 
 
  Section: General Biotechnology / Biotechnology & Environment
 
 
Please share with your friends:  
 
 

Environmental Biotechnology

 
     
 
The area of polluted soil and water is expanding day by day due to rapid increase in world population. About 100 million people are added to the world population each year. Therefore, more and more industries, food, health care, medicines, vehicles, etc. are required to meet the demand of people. This is possible by involving biotechnology. However, it is probable that the modern biotechnology based on the sophisticated art of genetic engineering could solve all these problems.

The environmental biotechnology employs the application of genetic engineering to improve the efficiency and cost which are central to the future widespread exploitation of microorganisms to reduce the environmental burden of toxic substances. It is hoped that in future the application of microorganisms coupled with genetic engineering techniques will make a major contribution to improve the quality of our environment. However, is there risk associated with release of genetically engineered microorganisms into the environment!

Uses of microorganisms in environmental clean up with special reference to bioremediation types, processes and methods with several examples (e.g. hydrocarbons, heavy metals, dyes, xenobiotics, etc), utilization of sewage and agro-wastes, and the benefits and hazards associated with release of GMMs for our clean environment have been discussed in this section. The benefits expected from the release of GMMs into the environment are summarized in Table 21.1.

Table 21.1. Benefits from release of genetically modified microorganisms into the environment.
A. Protection of environment
      - Bioremediation of polluted environment
B. Control of global environmental process
      - Reversal of land desertification
      - Reversal of green house effect
C. Agriculture

      - Increasing efficiency of plant nutrition
      - Pest control (safe biopesticides)
      - Protection of plants from climatic stress
      - Protection of plants from tumor formation and disease
D. Food Industry
      - Microorganisms producing enzymes for food industry
      - Microorganisms with improved efficiency of fermentation
      - Improved microorganisms for milk industry
E.  Health care
- Microorganisms as live attenuated vaccines
Source: Velkov (1996).


Content

Bioremediation

 

In situ bioremediation

   

Intrinsic bioremediation

   

Engineered in situ bioremediation

 

Ex situ bioremediation

   

Solid phase system (composting, composting process)

   

Slurry phase system (aerated laggons, low shear airlift reactor)

   

Factors affecting slurry phase bioremediation

 

Bioremediation of hydrocarbon

 

 

Use of mixture of bacteria

   

Use of genetically engineered bacterial strains 

 

Bioremediation of Industrial wastes

   

Bioremediation of dyes

   

Bioremediation of heavy metals

   

Bioremediation of coal waste through VAM fungi

 

Bioremediation of xenobiotics

   

Microbial degradation of xenobiotics

   

Gene manipulation of pesticide-degrading microorganisms

Utilization of sewage, and agro-wastes

 

Production of single cell protein

 

Biogas from sewage

 

Mushroom production on agro-wastes

 

Vermicomposting

Microbial leaching (bioleaching)   

 

Microorganisms used in leaching

 

Chemistry of leaching

   

Direct leaching

   

Indirect leaching

 

Leaching process (slope leaching heap leaching in situ leaching)

 

Examples of bioleaching

   

Copper leaching

 

 

Uranium leaching

   

Gold and silver leaching

   

Silica leaching

Hazards of environmental engineering

 

Survival of released GMMs in the environment

   

Adaptive mutagenesis in GMMs

   

Gene transfer from GMMs into other microorganisms

   

Gene transfer via conjugative transposons

   

Effect of environmental factors on gene transfer

 

Ecological impact of GMMs released into the environment

   

Growth inhibition of natural strains

   

Growth stimulation of indigenous strains

   

Replacement of natural strains

 

Monitoring of GEMs in the environment

   

Risk assessment of the GEMs released into the environment


 
     
 
 
     




     
 
Copyrights 2012 © Biocyclopedia.com | Disclaimer