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  Section: General Biotechnology / Genes & Genetic Engineering
 
 
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Genes : Nature, Concept and Synthesis

 
     
 
A British biologist, Richard Dawkins in his book "The Selfish Gene" (1989) has stated about the gene "they are in you, and in me; they created us, body and minds and their preservation is the ultimate rationale for our existence, they go by the name of genes, and we as their survival machines. In this section physical and chemical nature of genes, classical and modern concepts of genes, their expression and regulation, and artificial synthesis have been discussed.



Genes : Nature, Concept and Synthesis
Content

Chemical nature of DNA

 

Chemical composition

 

Nucleotides, nucleosides

 

Polynucleotides

 

Chargaff's rule of equivalence

Physical nature of DNA

 

Watson and Cricks model of DNA

 

Circular and superhelical DNA

 

Organization of DNA in eukaryotes

Structure of RNA

Gene concept

Units of a gene

 

Cistron

 

Recon

 

Mutan

Split genes (introns)

 

RNA splicing

 

Ribozyme

 

Evolution of split genes

Overlapping gene

Gene organization

Gene expression

Gene regulation

 

Transcription

   

The lac operon (structural gene, operator gene, promoter gene and repressor gene)

Artificial synthesis of genes

 

Synthesis of a gene for yeast alanine tRNA

 

Synthesis of a gene for bacterial tyrosine tRNA

 

Synthesis of a human leukocyte interferon gene

Gene synthesis by using mRNA

Gene machine

The PCR

 

Amplification of DNA (melting of target DNA, annealing of primers, primer extension)

 

Application of PCR technology


 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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