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  Section: General Biotechnology / Animal Biotechnology
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Manipulation of Reproduction and Transgenic Animals

Animals are a source of high protein, food, fiber and leather which men have been using since the time immemorial. In India milk and milk products have become a part of our civilization. Even in any small festival, demand of these two gets increased as several milk-based sweets and food items are prepared. Right from God worship to dining table use of milk and milk products is unavoidable. However, milk production could not keep pace with milk demand. Therefore, to meet milk demand synthetic milk and synthetic khoa are illegally sold in market even after several punishment threats declared by the Government. Due to unaware use of synthetic milk several infants have been reported to lose their lives.

Production of food from animals is inexpensive and exhausting, and less efficient than plants.
The most common farm hoofed animals are cattle, sheep, goats and pigs but unlike plants their management is expensive. Inspite of expenses rendered on nutrition, shelter and management, animals have been our companion since the dawn of civilization. Moreover, there is regional variation on availability of animal protein to human diet due to cost, culture and religion. In biological sense, despite several similarities animals differ from plants in their reproduction systems such as number of gametes (ova), completion of life cycle, production of products, etc. Except pigs females of all common livestocks produce one egg at about monthly intervals. Therefore, through biotechnological methods discovered in recent years, improvement in reproductive systems of animals, their milk proteins and milk-products, and several novel products which normally lack in animals can be carried out.


Manipulation of reproduction in animals


Artificial insemination


Semen collection and its storage


Ovulation control


Sperm sexing


Embryo transfer


Multiple ovulation (superovulation)   


Multiple ovulation with embryo transfer


Embryo splitting


Embryo sexing


In vitro fertilization (IVF) technology



In vitro Maturation (IVM) of oocytes



Culture of in vitro fertilized embryos


Embryo Cloning


Quadriparental hybrid


Nuclear trans­ plantation (Dolly)


Embryonic stem cells

In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in humans


Infertilities in humans


Male sterility


Female sterility


Who benefits IVF


How the patients for IVF treated


Indicators of ovary stimulation


Oocyte recovery and uptake


Semen preparation


IVF and embryo transfer

Transgenic animals


Strategies for gene transfer


Transfer of animal cells/embryo


Treatment through microinjection


Targeted gene transfer


Transgenic animals


Transgenic sheep


Transgenic fish


Animal bioreactor and molecular farming

Application of molecular genetics


Selected traits and their breeding into livestock


Diagnosis, elimination and breeding strategies of genetic diseases


Application of molecular genetics in improvement of livestock


Hybridization based markers


PCR-based markers


Properties of molecular markers


Application of molecular markers


Transgenic breeding strategies


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