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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
 
 
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Primary Metabolites

 
     
 
It has earlier been mentioned that primary metabolites, secreted by micro-organism, in turn are required by microorganisms. In this connection a detailed account of vitamins, organic acids and alcohols are given in this section of Primary Metabolites.

Content

Vitamins

  Vitamins B12
    Chemical structure
    Commercial production
Organic acids
 

Citric acid

   

Commercial production

 

 

Biochemistry of fermentation

 

Use of organic acids

Alcohols

 

Microorganism used in alcohol production

 

Fermentable substrates

 

Biochemistry of fermentation

   

Ethanol fermentation by yeasts

   

Ethanol fermentation by bacteria

 

Ethanol fermentation methods

 

Distilleries producing alcohols

 

Alcoholic beverages

 

 

Wine

   

Beer

   

Rum

   

Whisky

   

Sake

 

Uses of alcohols



 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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