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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
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Primary Metabolites

It has earlier been mentioned that primary metabolites, secreted by micro-organism, in turn are required by microorganisms. In this connection a detailed account of vitamins, organic acids and alcohols are given in this section of Primary Metabolites.



  Vitamins B12
    Chemical structure
    Commercial production
Organic acids

Citric acid


Commercial production



Biochemistry of fermentation


Use of organic acids



Microorganism used in alcohol production


Fermentable substrates


Biochemistry of fermentation


Ethanol fermentation by yeasts


Ethanol fermentation by bacteria


Ethanol fermentation methods


Distilleries producing alcohols


Alcoholic beverages













Uses of alcohols


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