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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
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Secondary Metabolites

Secondary metabolites are the microbial products which are produced during the idiophase of microbial growth. These are secreted when depletion of one or more nutrients is caused in the culture medium. Secondary metabolites are not further required by the micro-organisms for their growth. Secondary metabolites e.g. alkaloids, essential oils, pigments, etc. from cultured plant cells are described under Immobilized cell culture. But toxins and antibiotics of microbial origin are described in detail in Secondary Metabolites.



Bacterial toxins


Chemical nature


Production of b-exotoxin


Microbial insecticides


Mycotoxins, type, action, control






Selection of culture of penicillium


Chemical nature of penicillins


Fermentation medium


Fermentation process


Antibiotic producing companies


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