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  Section: General Biotechnology / Animal Biotechnology
 
 
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Manipulation of Reproduction and Transgenic Animals

 
     
 

Manipulation of Reproduction in Animals
One of the natural laws of life is to be many from one which is possible through reproduction. In animals sexual reproduction occurs through fertilization of female gametes (ova) by male gametes (sperms) followed by fusion of two nuclei coming from two gametes. Thus sexual reproduction maintains the genetic traits of organisms. But offsprings develop and born in natural way. To meet the demand of animal products due to gradual increasing population there is need of increase in number of animals too which is possible biotechnologically because natural process of increase in number is slow.

In nature female mammals produce only one egg in a month except pigs. Secondly, ruminant females can have only one offspring in a year. Therefore, biotechnology can help to meet increasing demand and need of quality products of animals. In this regard principles of artificial breeding system has been discussed that may be useful further in the area of animal biotechnology.

 

Content

Manipulation of reproduction in animals

 

Artificial insemination

 

 

Semen collection and its storage

 

 

Ovulation control

 

 

Sperm sexing

 

Embryo transfer

 

 

Multiple ovulation (superovulation)   

 

 

Multiple ovulation with embryo transfer

 

 

Embryo splitting

 

 

Embryo sexing

 

In vitro fertilization (IVF) technology

 

 

In vitro Maturation (IVM) of oocytes

 

 

Culture of in vitro fertilized embryos

 

Embryo Cloning

 

 

Quadriparental hybrid

 

 

Nuclear transplantation (Dolly)

 

 

Embryonic stem cells

In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in humans

 

Infertilities in humans

 

 

Male sterility

 

 

Female sterility

 

Who benefits IVF

 

How the patients for IVF treated

 

 

Indicators of ovary stimulation

 

 

Oocyte recovery and uptake

 

 

Semen preparation

 

IVF and embryo transfer

Transgenic animals

 

Strategies for gene transfer

 

 

Transfer of animal cells/embryo

 

 

Treatment through microinjection

 

 

Targeted gene transfer

 

Transgenic animals

 

Transgenic sheep

 

Transgenic fish

 

Animal bioreactor and molecular farming

Application of molecular genetics

 

Selected traits and their breeding into livestock

 

 

Diagnosis, elimination and breeding strategies of genetic diseases

 

Application of molecular genetics in improvement of livestock

 

 

Hybridization based markers

 

 

PCR-based markers

 

 

Properties of molecu­lar markers

 

 

Application of molecular markers

 

 

Transgenic breeding strategies


 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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