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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
 
 
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Enzyme Technology

 
     
 

Microorganisms Producing Enzyme

There is a large number of microorganisms which produce a variety of enzymes. Enzymes differ with respect to substrates. Some of the microorganisms producing enzymes are listed in Table 17.1.

 

Table 17.1. Microorganisms producing enzymes.

 

Microorganisms

Enzymes

A.

Bacteria:

 

 

Bacillus cereus

Penicillinase

 

B. coagulans

a-amylase

 

B. licheniformis

a-amylase, protease

 

B. megaterium

Penicillin acylase

 

Citrobacter spp.

L-asparaginase

 

Escherichia coli

Penicillin acylase, b-galactosidase

 

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Pullulanase

B.

Actinomycetes:

 

 

Actinoplanes sp.

Glucose isomerase

C.

     Fungi:

 

 

Aspergilus flavus

Urate oxidase

 

A. niger

Amylases, protease, pectinase, glucose oxidase

 

A. oryzae

Amylases, lipases, protease

 

Aureobasidium pullulans

Esterase, invertase

 

Candila lipolytica

Lipase

 

Mucor micheli and M. pusillis

Bennet

 

Neurospora crassa

Trysinase

 

Penicillium funiculosum

Dextranase

 

P. notatum

Glucose oxidase

 

Rhizopus sp.

Lipase

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Invertase

 

S. fragilis

Invertase

 

Trichoderma reesei

Cellulase

 

T. viride

Cellulase

 

 

Content

Microorganisms

Properties of enzymes

 

Presence of species specificity

 

Variation in activity and stability

 

Substrate specificity

 

Activation and inhibition

Methods of enzyme production

 

Isolation of microorganisms, strain development and preparation of inoculum 

 

Medium formulation and preparation

 

Sterilization and inoculation of medium, maintenance of culture and fluid filtration

 

Purification of enzymes

Immobilization of enzymes

 

Advantages of using immobilized enzymes

 

Methods of enzyme immobilization

 

 

Adsorption

 

 

Covalent bonding (Ionic bonding)

 

 

Entrapping

 

 

Cross linking

 

 

Encapsulation

 

Effects of enzyme immobilization on enzyme stability

Enzyme engineering

Application of enzymes

 

Therapeutic uses

 

Analytical uses

 

Manipulative uses

 

Industrial uses

 

 

In dairy industry

 

 

In detergent industry

 

 

In starch industry

 

 

In brewing industry

 

 

In wine industry

 

 

In pharmaceutical industry

Biosensor

 

Types of biosensor

 

Applications of biosensor

Biochips

 

Principles of Biochips

 

Application of Biochips

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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