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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
 
 
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  span class="style5">Features of Biotechnological Importance in Microorganisms
 
     
 

Microbial Products

Most of the natural products constituted by carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and phosphorus can be fermented under anaerobic conditions by microorganisms. There are many fermentation products used commercially (Fig. 14.6). A list of some microorganisms and their products are given in Table 14.1.

 

Primary Metabolites

After inoculation when microbial growth is in exponential or trophophase many intermediate metabolic products are produced. These are further needed either in growth (e.g. amino acids, nucleotides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, etc), or energy yielding catabolism (e.g. acetone, ethanal, butanol, organic acids, etc). Therefore, the metabolites produced during trophophase are known as 'primary metabolites'. The concentration of some of the metabolites exceeds many times more than required by the producers. The principal primary metabolites and the respective micro-organisms are given in Table 14.1.

 

Secondary Metabolites

When the trophophase of growing culture is over, then starts the idiophase. Microbial products other than primary metabolites produced during idiophase by slow growing or non-growing cells of microorganisms are known as secondary metabolites or idiolites such as toxins, gibberellins, alkaloids, and antibiotics. The secondary metabolites play no role in growth of microorganisms. It is produced by a limited number of microorganisms (Table 14.1) when depletion of one or more nutrients is caused in culture medium.

 

Content

Fermentation

Microorganisms

Cultures of microorganism

 

Solid or semisolid culture

 

Batch culture

 

Continuous culture

 

Fed-batch culture

Metabolic pathways in microorganisms

 

Glycolysis or EMP pathway

 

The entner-doudoroff pathway

 

The pentose phosphate pathway

Microbial products

 

Primary metabolites

 

Secondary metabolites

 

Enzymes

 

Microbial biomass


Enzymes

Enzymes are naturally occurring biocatalysts which accelerate metabolic reactions. Various metabolic activities and production of primary and secondary metabolites are not possible without the involvement of enzymes. Enzymes produced during fermentation are mostly extracellular but a few are intracellular for example asparaginase, invertase and uric acid. Intracellular enzymes may be produced in industries, but with many difficulties. The important extracellular enzymes are amylases, cellulases, invertase, 6-galactosidase (lactase), esterase, lipases, proteases.

Table 14.1. Microorganisms and their products.

 

Algae

Microbial products

Primary metabolites

(1)

Secondary metabolites

(2)

Enzymes

(3)

Others

(4)

 

Chlorella sorokiniana

-

-

-

SCP

 

Spirulina maxima

-

-

-

SCP

 

S. platensls

-

-

-

SCP


 

Bacteria

Microbial products

Primary metabolites

(1)

Secondary metabolites

(2)

Enzymes

(3)

Others

(4)

 

Acetobacter aceti

Acetic acid

-

-

-

 

Acetobacterium woodii

Acetic acid

-

-

-

 

Bacillus brevis

-

Gramicidin  

-

-

 

B. polymyxa

-

Polymyxin B

Amylase

-

 

B. popilliae

-

Endotoxin

-

-

 

B. subtilis

-

Bacitracin

-

-

 

B. thuringiensis

-

Endotoxin

-

-

 

Clostridium aceticum

Acetic acid

-

-

-

 

Gluconobacter

suboxydans

Vinegar

-

-

-

 

Meihylophilus

methylotrophus

Glutanic acid

-

-

-

 

Pseudomonas

denitrificans

Vitamin B12

-

-

Yoghurt

 

Actinomycetes :

-

-

-

-

 

Micromonospora

purpurea

-

Gentamicin

-

-

 

Nocardia mediterranei

-

Rifamycin

-

-

 

Streptomyces

aureofaciens                 

-

Tetracycline

-

-

 

S. tradiae                     

-

Neomycin

-

-

 

S. griseus                     

-

Streptomycin

-

-

 

S. noursei                     

-

Nystatin

-

-

 

Fungi :

-

-

-

-

 

Aspergillus niger   

-

Citric acid

-

-

 

A. oryzae

-

-

Amylase Cellulase Amylase

SCP,

Soya sauce

 

Candida lipolytica         

-

-

Lipase

Soya sauce

 

C. utilis                         

-

-

-

SCP

 

Cephalosporium

acremonium                  

-

Cephalosporin

-

-

 

Fusarium

moniliforme                  

-

-

-

SCP

 

Gibberella

fujikuroi                

-

Gibberellin

-

-

 

Morchella esculenta     

-

-

-

SCP

 

Penicillium

chrysogenum                 

-

Penicillin

-

-

 

Rhizopus arrihizus,

-

-

-

-

 

R. nigricans                  

-

Steroides

-

-

 

Saccharomyces

cerevisiae                       

-

-

-

SCP, wine, bakery

 

S. lipolytica                

-

-

-

SCP

 

Trichoderma                   

harzianum,                     

T. reesei, T. viride          

-

-

Cellulase

-

SCP = Single Cell Protein.


Microbial Biomass

Microbial cells which produce many commercial products, themselves serve as main source of biomass. Microbial biomass is also known as microbial protein or single cell protein (SCP). SCP plays a significant role in supplying the protein in world food shortages. Production of SCP and its application have been described in detail in Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein.
  Reduction of glucose into some important products during fermentation. 1-yeast; 2-propionibacteria; 3-clostridia; 4-coli-aerogenes groups; 5-lactic acid bacteria (modified after Schlegel, 1986).
 

Fig. 14.6. Reduction of glucose into some important products during fermentation. 1-yeast; 2-propionibacteria; 3-clostridia; 4-coli-aerogenes groups; 5-lactic acid bacteria (modified after Schlegel, 1986).

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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