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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
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Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein


Organic Wastes

There are many sources of organic wastes on which fungi grow. Large quantity of ceulosic and lignocellulosic materials are present in agriculture, forestry an industry wastes. Trichoderma reesei, T.viride and T. harzianum have cellulase secreting ability which catalyze the conversion of cellulose to cellubiose, and cellubiose, in turn to glucose (Mandels and Stenberg, 1976). Before microbial invasion, cellulosic materials are treated with alkali so that, glucosidic bonds could be broken. Thus alkali treatment and hydrolysis of cellulosic material increases the biodegradability of cellulose by many fungi, for example, A.fumigatus, Chaetomium sp., Geotrichium candidwn, Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma sp.


The waste pods or carob beans contains sugars which are used as substrate for the growth of fungi e.g. A. niger, Fusarium moniliforme etc. Tate and Lyle Limited, U.K. has developed a process for utilization of carbohydrates in carob bean extracted by A. niger. A yield of 0.45 g/ g substrate of A. niger grown on carob bean extract was obtained (Litchfield, 1979).


The pellets of fungal mat are recovered from the growth medium by decantation and filtration process. For example, mycelial biomass of A. niger, which does not form pellets was separated by rotary vacuum filters. The mycelial biomass was dried in tray or belt driers.


Advantages of producing microbial protein

Microorganisms use as single cell protein (SCP)

Substrates used for the production of SCP

Nutritional values of SCP

Genetic improvements of microbial cells

Production of algal biomass


Factors affecting bio­mass production


Harvesting the algal biomass


Spirulina as SCP, cultivation and uses

Production of bacterial and actinomycetous biomass


Method of production


Factors affecting biomass production


Product recovery

Production of yeast biomass


Factors affecting growth of yeast


Recovery of yeast biomass

Production of fungal biomass (Other than Mushrooms)


Growth conditions


Organic wastes as substrates


Traditional fungal foods













Mushroom culture


Historical background


Present status of mushroom culture in India


Nutritional values


Cultivation methods



Obtaining pure culture 



Preparation of spawns



Formulation and preparation of composts



Spawning, spawn running and cropping


Control of pathogens and pests


Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom


Cultivation of white button mushroom


Cultivation of Dhingri (Pleurotus sajor-caju)


Recipes of mushroom


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