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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
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Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein


Present Status of Mushroom Cultivation in India

Since 1983, a large number of growers started mushroom cultivation during winter around Delhi, Chandigarh and some districts of Haryana (e.g. Sonepat, Rohtak, Karnal) and Punjab (e.g. Ferozpur, Patiala, Ludhiana and Jalandhar). In Bhiwani district of Haryana mushroom cultivation is gaining much popularity. Under the guidance of specialists of Krishi Gyan Kendra and Scientists of Haryana Agriculture University (Hissar) the farmers in villages Tagrana and Bamla have undertaken cultivation of mushrooms. These villages have been declared as mushroom villages.


Since mushrooms have a very short life, it should reach to consumers within a short time or immediately canned. This will lead to proper marketing of mushrooms. In India, over-production and improper care for marketing have resulted in the increase in price. The cost of production in India at present is comparatively higher than other countries (Rs. 10 / kg in North Indian plains and Rs. 15/kg in hills) and hence cannot compete in international market. The yield obtained so far is low due to (a) improper infrastructure of preparation of pasteurized compost, (b) use of ordinary buildings lacking proper temperature control as cropping rooms, (c) use of low yielding strains, (d) inadequate supply of quality spawn, (e) lack of trained manpower, and (f) inadequate research support (Sohi, 1988). The technology for cultivation and processing of mushroom has been developed at CFTRI (Hyderabad), RRL (Jammu) and NBRI (Lucknow). RRL and NBRI are distributing mushroom spawns in rural areas for mass cultivation. CFTRI has developed technique for processing and drying mushrooms.


Advantages of producing microbial protein

Microorganisms use as single cell protein (SCP)

Substrates used for the production of SCP

Nutritional values of SCP

Genetic improvements of microbial cells

Production of algal biomass


Factors affecting bio­mass production


Harvesting the algal biomass


Spirulina as SCP, cultivation and uses

Production of bacterial and actinomycetous biomass


Method of production


Factors affecting biomass production


Product recovery

Production of yeast biomass


Factors affecting growth of yeast


Recovery of yeast biomass

Production of fungal biomass (Other than Mushrooms)


Growth conditions


Organic wastes as substrates


Traditional fungal foods













Mushroom culture


Historical background


Present status of mushroom culture in India


Nutritional values


Cultivation methods



Obtaining pure culture 



Preparation of spawns



Formulation and preparation of composts



Spawning, spawn running and cropping


Control of pathogens and pests


Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom


Cultivation of white button mushroom


Cultivation of Dhingri (Pleurotus sajor-caju)


Recipes of mushroom


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