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  Section: General Biotechnology / Plant Biotechnology
 
 
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In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

 
     
 

Culture of Plant Materials

Explant Culture
There are a variety of forms of seed plants viz., trees, herbs, grasses, which exhibit the basic morphological units i.e. root, stem and leaves. These again vary with differences in cells and tissues, and their topography.

Parenchyma is the most versatile of all types of tissues. They are capable of division and growth. However, development of a tissue is characterized by 3 types of cell growth: cell division, cell elongation and cell differentiation. For this purpose, the explant from healthy and young part of the plant is used. Presence of parenchyma is first consideration in a particular species. Parenchyma from stems, rhizomes, tubers, roots is easily accessible and will generally respond quickly to culture conditions in vitro. However, parenchyma cells have an identical morphogenetic potential (Kurz and constabel, 1979).

 

Content

Totipotency

Historical background

Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures

 

A tissues culture laboratory

 

Nutrient media

 

 

Inorganic chemicals

 

 

Growth hormones

 

 

Organic constitutents

 

 

Vitamins

 

 

Amino acids

Culture of plant materials

 

Explant culture

 

Callus formation and its culture

 

Organogenesis

 

Root culture

 

Shoot culture and micropropagation

 

Cell culture

 

 

Benefits from cell culture

 

Somatic embryogenesis

 

Somaclonal variation

 

Protoplast culture

 

 

Isolation

 

 

Regeneration

 

Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization

 

 

Fusion products

 

 

Method of somatic hybridization

 

Anther and pollen Culture

 

 

Culturing techniques

 

In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)

 

Mentor pollen technology

 

Embryo culture

 

Embryo rescue

 

Protoplast fusion in fungi

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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