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  Section: General Biotechnology / Plant Biotechnology
 
 
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In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

 
     
 
Embryo Rescue
Viable hybrids are produced as a result of sexual crosses between two varieties of the species. However, if sexual crosses are done between the species of the same genus or between two different genera, production of hybrid is rather difficult because of several barriers arising either during pollination, fertilization or embryogenesis. It has been observed that in some cases in spite of successful pollination and fertilization, embryo does not develop. This is due to inherent deficiencies or incompatibility between the developing embryo or endosperms. In such cases, immature embryos are dissected out from the fruit (seed) and grown artificially on medium which differentiate into shoot, root and plantlets. This technique of growing immature embryo is termed as 'embryo rescue'.
 

Embryo rescue technique is very useful in wide hybridization, complete growth of embryo in plant, breaking dormancy of certain seeds where dormancy period is very long. By using embryo rescue technique wild varieties can be crossed with cultivars. As compared with cultivars, the wild species have greater resistance to pests and pathogens, and produce grains of better quality. At the International Crop Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, this technique has been used to improve groundnut, pigeon pea and chick-pea. A new hybrid variety of pigeon-pea (ICPH8) has been developed at ICRISAT that matures in 100 days instead of 200 days. This variety is resistant to pathogens and pests and yields 20% higher than original cultivars. However, it can grow in a wide range of conditions.
 

Content

Totipotency

Historical background

Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures

 

A tissues culture laboratory

 

Nutrient media

 

 

Inorganic chemicals

 

 

Growth hormones

 

 

Organic constitutents

 

 

Vitamins

 

 

Amino acids

Culture of plant materials

 

Explant culture

 

Callus formation and its culture

 

Organogenesis

 

Root culture

 

Shoot culture and micropropagation

 

Cell culture

 

 

Benefits from cell culture

 

Somatic embryogenesis

 

Somaclonal variation

 

Protoplast culture

 

 

Isolation

 

 

Regeneration

 

Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization

 

 

Fusion products

 

 

Method of somatic hybridization

 

Anther and pollen Culture

 

 

Culturing techniques

 

In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)

 

Mentor pollen technology

 

Embryo culture

 

Embryo rescue

 

Protoplast fusion in fungi

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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