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  Section: General Biotechnology / Plant Biotechnology
 
 
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In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

 
     
 
Organogenesis
Root, shoot and leaves (but not embryo) are the organs that are induced in plant tissue culture. Since embryo is an independent structure and does not have vascular supply, it is not supposed to be the plant organ. Organogenesis (i.e. development of organs) starts with stimulation caused by the chemicals of medium, substances carried over from the original explants and endogenous compounds produced by the culture (Thomas and Davey, 1975).

Skoog (1944) for the first time indicated that the organogenesis could be chemically controlled. He observed root initiation (rhizogenesis) and shoot inhibition (caulogenesis) after addition of auxin to the medium. Further, Skoog and co-workers gave the concept of regulation of organogenesis by a balance between cytokinin and auxin. Skoog and Miller (1957) demonstrated that a high ratio of auxin: cytokinin stimulated the formation of root in tobacco callus, but a low ratio of the same induced shoot formation. The hypothesis of organogenesis was advanced by Torrey (1966) who propounded that organogenesis in callus starts with the development of a group of meristematic cells i.e. meristemoids that can respond to the factors within the system to initiate a primordium which, depending on kinds of factors, induces either root, shoot or embryoid. (Table 8.2).

Table 8.2 In vitro control of organogenesis by auxins and cytokinins

Auxin (mg/1)

Cytokinin (mg/1)

Organogenesis

0.0

0.2

                No growth

0.03

1.0

                Shoots

3.0

0.02

                Roots

3.0

0.2

                Callus

Source : Nandi and Palni (1992)


 

Content

Totipotency

Historical background

Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures

 

A tissues culture laboratory

 

Nutrient media

 

 

Inorganic chemicals

 

 

Growth hormones

 

 

Organic constitutents

 

 

Vitamins

 

 

Amino acids

Culture of plant materials

 

Explant culture

 

Callus formation and its culture

 

Organogenesis

 

Root culture

 

Shoot culture and micropropagation

 

Cell culture

 

 

Benefits from cell culture

 

Somatic embryogenesis

 

Somaclonal variation

 

Protoplast culture

 

 

Isolation

 

 

Regeneration

 

Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization

 

 

Fusion products

 

 

Method of somatic hybridization

 

Anther and pollen Culture

 

 

Culturing techniques

 

In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)

 

Mentor pollen technology

 

Embryo culture

 

Embryo rescue

 

Protoplast fusion in fungi

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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