Algae, Tree, Herbs, Bush, Shrub, Grasses, Vines, Fern, Moss, Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Fern Ally, Flower, Photosynthesis, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, carbohydrate, vitamins, amino acids, botany, lipids, proteins, cell, cell wall, biotechnology, metabolities, enzymes, agriculture, horticulture, agronomy, bryology, plaleobotany, phytochemistry, enthnobotany, anatomy, ecology, plant breeding, ecology, genetics, chlorophyll, chloroplast, gymnosperms, sporophytes, spores, seed, pollination, pollen, agriculture, horticulture, taxanomy, fungi, molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinfomatics, microbiology, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, chemistry, cytogenetics, bryology, ethnobotany, plant pathology, methodolgy, research institutes, scientific journals, companies, farmer, scientists, plant nutrition
Select Language:
Main Menu
Please click the main subject to get the list of sub-categories
Services offered
  Section: General Biotechnology / Plant Biotechnology
Please share with your friends:  

In Vitro Culture Techniques : The Biotechnological Principles

Root, shoot and leaves (but not embryo) are the organs that are induced in plant tissue culture. Since embryo is an independent structure and does not have vascular supply, it is not supposed to be the plant organ. Organogenesis (i.e. development of organs) starts with stimulation caused by the chemicals of medium, substances carried over from the original explants and endogenous compounds produced by the culture (Thomas and Davey, 1975).

Skoog (1944) for the first time indicated that the organogenesis could be chemically controlled. He observed root initiation (rhizogenesis) and shoot inhibition (caulogenesis) after addition of auxin to the medium. Further, Skoog and co-workers gave the concept of regulation of organogenesis by a balance between cytokinin and auxin. Skoog and Miller (1957) demonstrated that a high ratio of auxin: cytokinin stimulated the formation of root in tobacco callus, but a low ratio of the same induced shoot formation. The hypothesis of organogenesis was advanced by Torrey (1966) who propounded that organogenesis in callus starts with the development of a group of meristematic cells i.e. meristemoids that can respond to the factors within the system to initiate a primordium which, depending on kinds of factors, induces either root, shoot or embryoid. (Table 8.2).

Table 8.2 In vitro control of organogenesis by auxins and cytokinins

Auxin (mg/1)

Cytokinin (mg/1)




                No growth










Source : Nandi and Palni (1992)




Historical background

Requirements for cell and Tissue Cultures


A tissues culture laboratory


Nutrient media



Inorganic chemicals



Growth hormones



Organic constitutents






Amino acids

Culture of plant materials


Explant culture


Callus formation and its culture




Root culture


Shoot culture and micropropagation


Cell culture



Benefits from cell culture


Somatic embryogenesis


Somaclonal variation


Protoplast culture








Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization



Fusion products



Method of somatic hybridization


Anther and pollen Culture



Culturing techniques


In vitro androgenesis (direct and indirect androgenesis)


Mentor pollen technology


Embryo culture


Embryo rescue


Protoplast fusion in fungi


Copyrights 2012 © | Disclaimer