Algae, Tree, Herbs, Bush, Shrub, Grasses, Vines, Fern, Moss, Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Fern Ally, Flower, Photosynthesis, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, carbohydrate, vitamins, amino acids, botany, lipids, proteins, cell, cell wall, biotechnology, metabolities, enzymes, agriculture, horticulture, agronomy, bryology, plaleobotany, phytochemistry, enthnobotany, anatomy, ecology, plant breeding, ecology, genetics, chlorophyll, chloroplast, gymnosperms, sporophytes, spores, seed, pollination, pollen, agriculture, horticulture, taxanomy, fungi, molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinfomatics, microbiology, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, chemistry, cytogenetics, bryology, ethnobotany, plant pathology, methodolgy, research institutes, scientific journals, companies, farmer, scientists, plant nutrition
Select Language:
Main Menu
Please click the main subject to get the list of sub-categories
Services offered
  Section: Genetics » Mutations » Biochemical Level (Biochemical and Microbial Genetics)
Please share with your friends:  

Gene sequences and enzyme sequences in biosynthetic pathways

Mutations : 2.  Biochemical Level (Biochemical and Microbial Genetics)
Inborn errors of metabolism in man
Eye transplantation in Drosophila
Biochemical mutations in Neurospora
Mutations in E. coli for resistance against phages or antibiotics
Cell counting in suspension
Calculation of mutation rates and frequencies
Biochemical mutations and biosynthetic pathways
Gene sequences and enzyme sequences in biosynthetic pathways
In this section, earlier we have shown that each step of a biosynthetic pathway is controlled by a specific enzyme synthesized under the influence of a specific gene. In several cases, although not universally, it has been shown that the genes involved in different steps of a biosynthetic pathway are clustered and found in the same sequence in which their corresponding enzymes are used in the biosynthetic pathway. This will be illustrated with the help of two examples.

Tryptophan metabolism in Salmonella
It has been earlier shown that for tryptophan synthesis in Salmonella, five enzymes are needed for five steps earlier described as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. It was found that the genes for three enzymes in Salmonella are found in the same order in which the steps are found in the biosynthetic pathway.
Histidine metabolism in Salmonella
More than 500 mutations for histidine metabolism in Salmonella were mapped. These were linked in nine closely linked loci A to H, each affecting a different enzyme in the synthesis of histidine. The gene sequence was found to follow largely the metabolic sequence.

For several other traits including proline, threonine and isoleucine - valine metabolism in Salmonella, a similar clustering of genes was observed. This suggests, that at a primitive stage biochemical synthesis during evolution must have first organized on the chromosome itself.


Copyrights 2012 © | Disclaimer