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  Section: Genetics » Physical Basis of Heredity » The Nucleus and the Chromosome
 
 
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Nuclear envelope

 
     
 
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Physical Basis of Heredity 1.  The Nucleus and the Chromosome
The Nucleus 
Significance of nucleus : Hammerling's experiment
Number, shape and size of nucleus
Nucleus in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Nuclear envelope
Nuclear pore complex and nucleocytoplasmic traffic
Nucleolus
Chromosomes
Number, size and shape of chromosomes
Morphology of chromosomes
Karyotypes
Euchromatin and heterochromatin
Constitutive and facultative heterochromatin
Single-stranded and multi-stranded hypotheses for chromosomes
Chemical composition of chromosomes
Infrastructure of chromosomes
Function of chromosomes
Special types of chromosomes 
Lampbrush chromosomes
Salivary gland chromosomes
B-Chromosomes
Prokaryotic Nucleoids

Nuclear boundary of interphase and prophase nuclei is called nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope. It breaks down at the end of prophase and is reformed at the end of the nuclear division. It consists of a double membrane having two unit membranes (Fig. 6.2). The space between two unit membranes varies in width and is known as perinuclear space. Outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.

Each unit membrane is 7.5 nm (1 nm = 10 Å) in diameter and perinuclear space may vary from regular 15 nm wide spaces to irregular cavities several hundred times wide. Outline of nuclear envelope is smooth and interrupted by pores which appear circular in surface view. Diameter of these pores varies from 30 nm 100 nm. In sections, it is obvious that at the boundary of these pores, outer and inner unit membranes are joined. These pores provide direct contact between nucleus and cytoplasm and allow import and export of protein and, RNA (particularly export of messenger RNA, which is synthesized in the nucleus and then reaches cytoplasm for protein synthesis). The double membrane also takes part in giving rise to the initials of cell organelles like mitochondria or plastids (Fig. 6.3).

Nuclear membrane showing double structure.
Fig. 6.2. Nuclear membrane showing double structure.
 
Formation of organelle initial from nuclear envelope.
Fig. 6.3. Formation of organelle initial from nuclear envelope.

 
     
 
 
     




     
 
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