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  Section: Genetics » Sex Determination, Sex Differentiation, Dosage Compensation and Genetic Imprinting
 
 
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Sex Determination in Plants

 
     
 
Content
Sex Determination, Sex Differentiation, Dosage Compensation and Genetic Imprinting
Chromosome Theory of Sex Determination 
Balance Theory of Sex Determination X/A ratio in Drosophila
Triploid intersexes in Drosophila and genie balance theory
X/A ratio and gynandromorphs in Drosophila
X/A ratio in Coenorhabditis elegans (a free living nematode)
Balance Between Male and Female Factors
- Diploid intersexes in gypsy moth (Lymantria)
- X/A ratio and multiple numerator elements (Drosophila and Coenorhabditis)
Sex Determination in Plants
Methods for determining heterogametic sex in plants
Sex determination in Coccinia and Melandrium
Sex determination in other dioecious plants
Sex Chromosomes in Mammals Including Humans (Homo sapiens)
TDF, ZFY and SRY genes in humans
H-Y antigen and male development in mammals
Single gene control of sex
Sex determination in Asparagus
Tassel seed (ts) and silkless (sk) genes in maize
Transformer gene (tra)in Drosophila
Haploid males in Hymenoptera
Hormonal control of sex
Environmental Sex Determination in Reptiles
Dosage Compensation in Organisms with Heterogametic Males
X-chromosome inactivation in mammals
Position effect variegation
Hyperactivity of X-chromosome in male Drosophila
Lack of Dosage Compensation in Organisms with Heterogametic Females
Genetic imprinting
In higher plants, individuals are classified as males, females or hermaphrodites, on the basis of whether the flower possesses only anthers, or only ovary or both. It is believed that the primitive type of floral condition in these plants was hermaphroditism, where flowers are bisexual. A range of types from these hermaphrodites to those having unisexual flowers with no trace of other sex are known in higher plants. These variations in higher plants are listed in Table 17.5. Of the eight types listed in Table 17.5, we have relatively better information on dioecious plant species and mechanism of sex determination in only these dioecious plant species will be discussed in this section.

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Allen (1940) gave a list of plant species in which sex chromosomes had been reported. Subsequently Wastergaard (1950) prepared a list of plant species where the presence of a pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes was well established and also of those where it was not so well established. For some dioecious plant species, the different types of chromosome constitutions involving heteromorphic sex chromosomes in one sex are listed in Table 17.6.

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