Replication and recombination in viruses

Sexuality and Recombination in Bacteria and Viruses
Three Methods for Transfer of Genetic Material 
Sexual conjugation in bacteria 
Culture media and mutant strains
Discovery of gene transfer
Discovery of linkage in bacteria
Donor and recipient strains
- Mechanism of chromosome transfer
- Physical structures involved in chromosome transfer
Linkage maps in bacteria
Conjugation mapping through interrupted mapping
Circular linkage map
Linkage information from transformation
Recombination after gene transfer
High resolution mapping
Linear order of genes
Replication and recombination in viruses 
Replication of bacteriophages
Lysogenic bacteria
Recombination in viruses
Circular genetic maps in viruses

Viruses are parasites and are considered to be simplest things that exhibit the properties of living systems. They can produce copies of themselves, although only within the host cells, and can change through mutations. Depending upon the host which a virus infects, these can be broadly placed in three categories : (i) animal viruses, (ii) plant viruses and (iii) bacterial viruses or bacteriophages. Simplest of these three classes are bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are also a class of viruses, which have been most extensively utilised for study of genetics of viruses. Contemporary with the discovery of sexuality in bacteria in 1946 by Lederberg and Tatum, genetic recombination was also demonstrated between different strains of bacteriophages by M. Delbruck, W.T. Bailey and A.D. Hershey. These workers were also able to detect and artificially induce mutations in these organisms. Considerable genetic work has since been undertaken by these and other workers using bacteriophages. Drs. A.D. Hershey, M. Delbruck and S.E. Luria shared Nobel Prize in medicine for the year 1969, for their contribution to replication and recombination in viruses.