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  Section: Introduction to Botany
 
 
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Introduction to Botany

 
     
 
Content
The Origin of Life
The Theory of Spontaneous Generation
Life Viewed Through the Microscope
A Modern-day Theory


The Cell
The Cell Doctrine
Mitochondria
Golgi Bodies
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nuclear Membrane
Cell Membrane
Cell Walls
Chloroplasts
Cilia
Plastids
Vacuoles
A Single-celled Imposter


Mitosis and Meiosis
The Basics of Mitosis
Plant Mitosis
The Basics of Meiosis
Aberrations in Mitosis and Cellular Composition


Chemistry
Empirical and Structural Formulas
Alcohols
Organic Acids
Amino Acids
Polymers
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids




















Mendelian Genetics
Pre-Mendelian Theorists and Theories
Gregor Mendel
Mendel’s Laws
Mendel’s Experiments
Applying Genetics


DNA
The Search for the Substance of Heredity
The Structure of DNA
The Functions of DNA
Amino Acids
Transfer RNA
Enzymes
Mutations in DNA
Gene Repression


Viruses
T-2 Bacteriophage
Plant Viruses


Physical Properties of Protoplasm
Composition of Protoplasm
Colloids
Diffusion


Photosynthesis
Early Research
Modern-day Research
Chlorophyll
Light
Electron Transfer
The Calvin Cycle
The C4 Plants
The CAM Carbon Pathway




















Respiration and Fermentation
The ATP Molecule
Respiration and Photosynthesis
The Anaerobic and Aerobic Pathways
Hydrogenation
The Carbon Cycle


Bacteria
Is Bacteria a Plant?
The Original Bacteria
Modern, Aerobic Bacteria
Characteristics of Bacteria
Benefits of Bacteria
Hazards of Bacteria
Identifying Bacteria
Bacterial Growth


The Blue-green Algae
Primordial Ooze
Characteristics of the Blue-green Algae
Types of Blue-green Algae


The Green Algae
The Volvacine Line
The Tetrasporine Line
The Siphonous Line
Green Alga or Bryophyta?


Phaeophyta: The Brown Algae
Products from Brown Algae
Reproduction in Brown Algae


Rhodophyceae: The Red Algae
Bangiophycidae
Floridiophycidae


Other Algae
Xanthophyta: The Yellow-green Algae
Euglenophyta
Chrysophyta
Pyrrophyta
Acetabularia: A Green Alga


Fungi
Fungi Classification
Myxomycetes


Phycomycetes
Chytridiomycetes
Zygomycetes
Oomycetes


The Ascomycetes
Reproduction in Ascomycetes
Fruiting Bodies
Yeasts
Pathogenic Ascomycetes
Penicillium and Aspergillus
Morels and Truffles
Ergot


The Basidiomycetes
Rusts
Smuts
Puffballs
Mycorrhiza


Fungi Imperfecti
Problems in Classification
Moniliales


Lichens
Reproduction in Lichens
The Members of a Lichen
Growth of Lichens
Products from Lichens
Lichens and the Doctrine of Signatures


Plant Classification
Early Efforts at Plant Classification
Carolus Linnaeus
The Theory of Evolution
Problems in Classification
Monophyletic or Polyphyletic?
System of Plant Classification
What Is a Species?


Bryophytes: The Liverworts, Hornworts, and Mosses
Liverworts
Hornworts
Mosses


Pteridophytes: The Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetails
Ferns
Club Mosses
Horsetails


Tissues
Meristematic Tissue
Simple Tissues and Complex Tissues


Gymnosperms
The First Seed Plants
Classifying the Gymnosperms
Coniferales
Ginkgo biloba


Angiosperms
Life Cycle
Lilies
Comparing Angiosperms to Gymnosperms


Hormones
In Search of Auxin
Other Plant Hormones


Biological Clocks
Circadian Rhythms
Gonyaulax polyedra


Plant Nutrition
Required Minerals
Determining Mineral Needs
Symptoms of Improper Nutrition


Stems
The Woody Dicot Stem
The Herbaceous Dicot Stem
The Monocot Stem


Roots
Contributors to Root Growth
Root Hairs
Structure of a Root
Casparian Strip
Root Growth


Leaves
Simple versus Compound Leaves
Transpiration
Leaves and Transplanting
Guttation
Structure of a Leaf
Leaves and Plant Classification and Identification


Flowers
How Flowers Are Formed
Variations in Flowers
Evolutionary Modifications in Flowers


Fruits and Seeds
Forms of Fruit
Seed Structure and Characteristics
Functions of Seeds
Variations in Seed Composition
Seed Longevity
Seed Germination
Reproduction


Other Methods of Propagation
Division
Layering
Cuttings
Grafting


Evolution
Early Changes in Thought
Charles Darwin
The Tenets of Darwinian Theory
Other Theories of Evolution
The First Organisms
Prokaryotic Life
Eukaryotic Life
The Emergence of Seed Plants
Grasses
Human Life
Life over Time


Ecology
Plant Ecology
Adaptation
Environment
Climate
The Global-Warming Controversy
Ecological Interrelationships
Natural Recycling
Plant Succession


Plants and Human Welfare
Feeding an Increasing Population
Other Human Uses for Plants
Cultivated Plants
Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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