Algae, Tree, Herbs, Bush, Shrub, Grasses, Vines, Fern, Moss, Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Fern Ally, Flower, Photosynthesis, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, carbohydrate, vitamins, amino acids, botany, lipids, proteins, cell, cell wall, biotechnology, metabolities, enzymes, agriculture, horticulture, agronomy, bryology, plaleobotany, phytochemistry, enthnobotany, anatomy, ecology, plant breeding, ecology, genetics, chlorophyll, chloroplast, gymnosperms, sporophytes, spores, seed, pollination, pollen, agriculture, horticulture, taxanomy, fungi, molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinfomatics, microbiology, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, chemistry, cytogenetics, bryology, ethnobotany, plant pathology, methodolgy, research institutes, scientific journals, companies, farmer, scientists, plant nutrition
Select Language:
Main Menu
Please click the main subject to get the list of sub-categories
Services offered
  Section: Plant Nutrition » Macronutrients » Nitrogen
Please share with your friends:  


Determination of Essentiality
Nitrogen Metabolism and Nitrogenous Constituents in Plants
  Nitrate Assimilation
    - Nitrate Reductase
    - Nitrite Reductase
  Ammonium Assimilation
    - Glutamine Synthetase
    - Glutamate Synthase
    - Glutamic Acid Dehydrogenase
    - Transamination
    - Amidation
  Proteins and Other Nitrogenous Compounds
Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Plants
  Symptoms of Deficiency and Excess
  Concentrations of Nitrogen in Plants
    - Concentrations of Nitrogen in Plant Parts
    - Ratios of Concentrations of Nitrogen to Other Nutrients in Plants
Nitrogen in Soils
  Forms of Nitrogen in Soils
    - Organic Nitrogen in Soil
    - Inorganic Nitrogen in Soil
Soil Testing for Nitrogen
  Determinations of Total Nitrogen
  Biological Determinations of Availability Indexes
    - Determination of Inorganic Nitrogen
      - Ammonium
      - Nitrate
      - Amino Sugars
Nitrogen Fertilizers
  Properties and Use of Nitrogen Fertilizers
    - Anhydrous Ammonia: 82% N
    - Aqua Ammonia: 21% N
    - Urea: 46% N
    - Ammonium Nitrate: 34% N
    - Ammonium Sulfate: 21% N
    - Nitrogen Solutions: 28–32% N
    - Ammonium Phosphates: 10–21% N
    - Other Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilizers
    - Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers: 0.2–15% N

  1. H.S. McKee. Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants. London: Oxford University Press, 1962, pp. 1-18.

  2. H.S. Reed. A Short History of the Plant Sciences. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica Co., 1942, pp. 241-254.

  3. E.W. Russell. Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. 9th ed. New York: Wiley, 1973, pp. 1-23.

  4. D.J.D. Nicholas. Inorganic nutrition of microorganisms. In: F.C. Steward, ed. Plant Physiology: A Treatise Vol. III. New York: Academic Press, 1963, pp. 363-447.

  5. L.H. Beevers, R.H. Hageman. Nitrate reduction in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 20:495-522, 1969.

  6. H.J. Evans, A. Nason. Pyridine nucleotide nitrate reduction from extracts of higher plants. Plant Physiol. 28:233-254, 1953.

  7. B.J. Miflin. The location of nitrate reductase and other enzymes related to amino acid biosynthesis in the plastids of roots and leaves. Plant Physiol. 54:550-555, 1974.

  8. A. Oaks, B. Hirel. Nitrogen metabolism in roots. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 36:345-365, 1985.

  9. C.G. Bowsher, D.P. Hucklesby, M.J. Emes. Nitrite reduction and carbohydrate metabolism in plastids purified from roots. Planta 177:359-366, 1989.

  10. L.P. Solomonson, M.J. Barber. Assimilatory nitrate reductase: functional properties and regulation. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 41:225-253, 1990.

  11. M. Andrews. Partitioning of nitrate assimilation between root and shoot of higher plants. Plant Cell Environ. 9:511-519, 1986.

  12. M. Andrews. Nitrate and reduced-N concentrations in the xylem sap of Stellaria media, Xanthium strumarium and six legume species. Plant Cell Environ. 9:605-608, 1986.

  13. M. Andrews, J.D. Morton, M. Lieffering, L. Bisset. The partitioning of nitrate assimilation between root and shoot of a range of temperature cereals and pasture grasses. Ann. Bot. London 70:271-276, 1992.

  14. W.J. Hunter, C.J. Fahring, S.R. Olsen, L.K. Porter. Location of nitrate reduction in different soybean cultivars. Crop Sci. 22:944-948, 1982.

  15. H. Marschner. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1995, pp. 229-265.

  16. L. Salsac, S. Chaillou, J.F. Morot-Gaudry, C. Lesaint, E. Jolivet. Nitrate and ammonium nutrition in plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 25:805-812, 1987.

  17. A. Bloom, S.S. Sukrapanna, R.L. Warner. Root respiration associated with ammonium and nitrate absorption and assimilation by barley. Plant Physiol. 99:1294-1301, 1992.

  18. A.C. Baron, T.H. Tobin, R.M. Wallsgrove, A.K. Tobin. A metabolic control analysis of the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle in isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 105:415-424, 1994.

  19. D.G. Blevins. An overview of nitrogen metabolism in higher plants. In: J.E. Poulton, J.T. Romeo, E.E. Conn, eds. Plant Nitrogen Metabolism. New York: Plenum Press, 1989, pp. 1-41.

  20. A. Bravo, J. Mora. Ammonium assimilation in Rhizobium phaseoli by the glutamine synthetaseglutamate synthase pathway. J. Bacteriol. 170(2):980-984, 1988.

  21. B. Hirel, C. Perrot-Rechenmann, A. Suzuki, J. Vidal, P. Gadal. Glutamine synthetase in spinach leaves. Immunological studies and immunocytochemical localization [Spinacia oleracea]. Plant Physiol. 69:983-987, 1982.

  22. O.A.M. Lewis, S. Chadwick, J. Withers. The assimilation of ammonium by barley roots. Planta 159:483-486, 1983.

  23. J.M. Ngambi, P. Amblard, E. Bismuth, M.L. Champigny. Study of enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase related to assimilation of nitrates in millet Pennisetum americanum 23 DB. Can. J. Bot. 59:1050-1055, 1981.

  24. R.M. Wallsgrove. The roles of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase in nitrogen metabolism of higher plants. In: W.R. Ulrich, ed. Inorganic Nitrogen Metabolism. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1987, pp. 137-141.

  25. K.C. Woo, J.F. Morot-Gaudry, R.E. Summons, C.B. Osmond. Evidence for the glutamine synthetase/ glutamate synthase pathway during the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle in spinach leaves [Spinacia oleracea]. Plant Physiol. 70:1514-1517, 1982.

  26. J.F. Seelye, W.M. Borst, G.A. King, P.J. Hannan, D. Maddocks. Glutamine synthetase activity, NH4+ accumulation and growth of callus cultures of Asparagus officinalis L. exposed to high NH4+ or phosphinothricin. J. Plant Physiol. 146:686-692, 1995.

  27. A. Wild, H. Sauer, W. Ruhle. The effects of phosphinothricin (glufosinate) on photosynthesis. I. Inhibition of photosynthesis and ammonia accumulation. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung-Section C-Biosciences 42c:263-269, 1987.

  28. A.L. Lehninger. Biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers, 1975, pp. 1-1104.

  29. F.C. Steward, D.J. Durzan. Metabolism of nitrogen compounds. In: F.C. Steward, ed. Plant Physiology: A Treatise. Vol IVA: Metabolism: Organic Nutrition and Nitrogen Metabolism. New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 379-686.

  30. F.G. Gregory, P.K. Sen. Physiological studies in plant nutrition. VI. The relation of respiration rate to the carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism of the barley leaf, as determined by nitrogen and potassium deficiency. Ann. Bot. N.S. 1:521-561, 1937.

  31. E.W. Yemm. The respiration of plants and their organs. In: F.C. Steward, ed. Plant Physiology: A Treatise. New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 231-310.

  32. J.A. Helleburst , R.G.S. Bidwell. Protein turnover in wheat and snapdragon leaves. Can. J. Bot. 41:961-983,1963.

  33. D. Racusen, M. Foote. Protein turnover rate in bean leaf discs. Plant Physiol. 37:640-642, 1960.

  34. A. Trewavas. Determination of the rates of protein synthesis and degradation in Lemma minor. Plant Physiol. 49:40-46, 1972.

  35. A. Trewavas. Control of the protein turnover rates in Lemma minor. Plant Physiol. 49:47-51, 1972.

  36. W.H. Pearsall. The distribution of the insoluble nitrogen in Beta leaves of different ages. J. Exp. Biol. 8:279-285, 1931.

  37. W. Bors, C. Langebartels, C. Michel, H. Sandermann, Jr. Polyamines as radical scavengers and protectants against ozone damage. Phytochemistry 28:1589-1595, 1989.

  38. P.T. Evans, R.L. Malmberg. Do polyamines have roles in plant development? Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 40:235-269, 1989.

  39. A.W. Galston, R. Kaur-Sawhney. Polyamines as endogenous growth regulators. In: P.J. Davies, ed. Plant Hormones and Their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987, pp. 280-295.

  40. A.W. Galston, R.K. Sawhney. Polyamines in plant physiology. Plant Physiol. 94:406-410,1990.

  41. R. Krishnamurthy, K.A. Bhagwat. Polyamines as modulators of salt tolerance in rice cultivars. Plant Physiol. 91:500-504, 1989.

  42. K.A. Nielsen. Polyamine content in relation to embryo growth and dedifferentiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J. Exp. Bot. 41:849-854, 1990.

  43. R.A. Saftner, B.G. Baldi. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: possible interaction with ethylene. Plant Physiol. 92:547-550, 1990.

  44. K.A. Corey, A.V. Barker. Ethylene evolution and polyamine accumulation by tomato subjected to interactive stresses of ammonium toxicity and potassium deficiency. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 114:651-655, 1989.

  45. T.A. Smith, C. Sinclair. The effect of acid feeding on amine formation in barley. Ann. Bot. (London) [N.S.] 31:103-111, 1967.

  46. H.A. Zaidan, F. Broetto, E.T. De Oliveira, L.A. Gallo, O.J. Crocomo. Influence of potassium nutrition and the nitrate/ammonium ratio on the putrescine and spermidine contents in banana vitroplants. J. Plant Nutr. 22:1123-1140, 1999.

  47. T.C. Tucker. Diagnosis of nitrogen deficiency in plants. In: R.D. Hauck, ed. Nitrogen in Crop Production. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1984, pp. 249-262.

  48. G.C. Cresswell, R.G. Weir. Plant Nutrient Disorders 2. Tropical Fruit and Nut Crops. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1995, pp. 1-112.

  49. G.C. Cresswell, R.G. Weir. Plant Nutrient Disorders 4. Pastures and Field Crops. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1995, pp. 1-126.

  50. G.C. Cresswell. R.G. Weir. Plant Nutrient Disorders 5. Ornamental Plants and Shrubs. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1998, pp. 1-200.

  51. R.G. Weir, G.C. Cresswell. Plant Nutrient Disorders 1. Temperate and Subtropical Fruit and Nut Crops. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1993, pp. 1-93.

  52. R.G. Weir, G.C. Cresswell. Plant Nutrient Disorders 3. Vegetable Crops. Melbourne: Inkata Press, 1993, pp. 1-104.

  53. H.B. Sprague. Hunger Signs in Crops. A Symposium. New York: McKay, 1964, pp. 1-461.

  54. D. Spencer, J.V. Possingham. The effect of nutrient deficiencies on the Hill reaction of isolated chloroplasts from tomato. Aus. J. Biol. Sci. 13:441-445, 1960.

  55. H. Ji, Tae J.L. Hess, A.A. Benson. Chloroplast membrane structure. I. Association of pigments with chloroplast lamellar protein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1504:676-685, 1968.

  56. T. Oku, G. Tomita. Protochlorophyllide holochrome 1. Plastoquinone attached to a Protochlorophyllide holochrome. Photosynthetica 4:295-301, 1970.

  57. K. Shinashi, H. Satoh, A. Uchida, K. Nakayama, M. Okada, I. Oonishi. Molecular characterization of a water-soluble chlorophyll protein from main veins of Japanese radish. J. Plant Physiol. 157:255-262, 2000.

  58. J.P. Thornber, J.C. Stewart, M.W.C. Hatton, J.C. Bailey. Nature of chloroplast lamellae. II. Chemical composition and further physical properties of two chlorophyll-protein complexes. Biochemistry 6:2006-2014, 1967.

  59. C. Tietz, F. Jelezko, U. Gerken, S. Schuler, A. Schubert, H. Rogl, J. Wrachtrup. Single molecule spectroscopy on the light-harvesting complex II of higher plants. Biophys. J. 81:556-562, 2001.

  60. A.V. Barker. Nutritional factors in photosynthesis of higher plants. J. Plant Nutr. 1:309-342, 1979.

  61. I. Terashima, J.R. Evans. Effects of light and nitrogen nutrition on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus of spinach. Plant Cell Physiol. 29:143-155, 1988.

  62. W.W. Thomson, T.W. Weier. The fine structure of chloroplasts from mineral-deficient leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Am. J. Bot. 49:1047-1055, 1962.

  63. M. Vesk, J.V. Possingham, F.V. Mercer. The effect of mineral nutrient deficiencies on structure of the leaf cells of tomato, spinach, and maize. Aus. J. Bot. 14:1-18, 1966.

  64. R.J. Deshaies, L.E. Fish, A.T. Jagendorf. Permeability of chloroplast envelopes to Mg2. Effects on protein synthesis. Plant Physiol. 74:775-782, 1984.

  65. J.D. Hall, R. Barr, A.H. Al-Abbas, F.L. Crane. The ultrastructure of chloroplants in mineral-deficient maize leaves. Plant Physiol. 50:404-409, 1972.

  66. G.S. Puritch, A.V. Barker. Structure and function of tomato leaf chloroplasts during ammonium toxicity. Plant Physiol. 42:1229-1238, 1967.

  67. D.W. Goodall, F.G. Gregory. Chemical composition of plants as an index of their nutritional status. Technical Communication No. 17. Imperial Bureau of Horticulture and Plantation Crops, East Malling, Kent, England. 1947, pp. 1-167.

  68. T. Pfeiffer, W. Simmermacher, A. Rippel. The content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in oat plants under differing conditions and their relationships to the nutritient supply for obtaining high yields (in German). J. Fur Landwirtschaft 67:1-57, 1942.

  69. T.E. Bates. Factors affecting critical nutrient concentrations in plants and their evaluation: a review. Soil Sci. 112:116-130, 1971.

  70. P. Macy. The quantitative mineral nutrient requirements of plants. Plant Physiol. 11:749-764, 1936.

  71. A. Ulrich. Plant tissue analysis as a guide in fertilizing crops. In: H.M. Reisenhauer, ed. Soil and Plant Tissue Testing in California. University of California Bulletin 1976, 1879, pp. 1-4.

  72. H.A. Mills, J.B. Jones, Jr. Plant Analysis Handbook II. Athens, Ga.: MicroMacro Publishing, 1996, pp. 155-414.

  73. P.B. Vose. Varietal differences in plant nutrition. Herbage Abstr. 33(1):1-13, 1963.

  74. J.B. Jones, Jr.,W.J.A. Steyn. Sampling, handling, and analyzing plant tissue samples. In: L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton, eds. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1973, pp. 249-270.

  75. J.J. Hanway, J.B. Herrick, T.L. Willrich, P.C. Bennett, J.T. McCall. The Nitrate Problem. Iowa Agric. Exp. Stn. Special Report No. 1963, 34:1-20.

  76. D.N. Maynard, A.V. Barker, P.L. Minotti, N.H. Peck. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Adv. Agron. 28:71-118, 1976.

  77. L.E. Schrader. Uptake, accumulation, assimilation, and transport of nitrogen in higher plants. In: D.R. Nielsen, J.G. MacDonald, eds. Nitrogen in the Environment. Vol. 2. Soil-Plant-Nitrogen Relationships. New York: Academic Press, 1978, pp. 101-141.

  78. G.D. Binford, A.M. Blackmer, N.M. El-Hout. Optimal concentrations of nitrate in corn stalks at maturity. Agron. J. 84:881-887, 1992.

  79. S.M. Brouder, D.B. Mengel, B.S. Hoffman. Diagnostic efficiency of the blacklayer stalk nitrate and grain nitrogen tests for corn. Agron. J. 92:1236-1247, 2000.

  80. B.A. Hooker, T.F. Morris. End-of-season corn stalk test for excess nitrogen in silage corn. J. Prod. Agric. 12:282-288,1999.

  81. G.M. Geraldson, G.R. Klacan, O.A. Lorenz. Plant analysis as an aid in fertilizing vegetable crops. In: L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton, eds. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, revised edition. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1973, pp. 365-379.

  82. A. Ulrich, F.J. Hills. Plant analysis as an aid in fertilizing sugar crops: Part I. Sugar beets. In: L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton, eds. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, revised edition. Madison,Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1973, pp. 271-288.

  83. M.B. Sumner, Interpretation of foliar analysis for diagnostic purposes. Agron. J. 71:343-348, 1979.

  84. M.B. Sumner. Preliminary N, P, and K foliar diagnostic norms for soybeans. Agron. J. 69:226-230, 1977.

  85. J.B. Jones, Jr., B. Wolf, H.A. Mills. Plant Analysis Handbook. Athens, Ga.: Micro-Macro Publishing, Inc., 1991, pp. 205-213.

  86. R.B. Beverly. A Practical Guide to the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System. Athens, Ga: Micro Macro Publishing, Inc., 1991, pp. 1-70.

  87. W.B. Hallmark, J.L. Walworth, M.E. Sumner, C.J. DeMooy, J. Pesek, K.P. Shao. Separating limiting from non-limiting nutrients. J. Plant Nutr. 10:1381-139, 1987.

  88. J.L. Walworth, M.E. Sumner, R.A. Isaac, C.O. Plank, Preliminary DRIS norms for alfalfa in the Southeastern United States and a comparison with Midwestern norms. Agron. J. 78:1046-1052, 1986.

  89. F.J. Stevenson. Origin and distribution of nitrogen in the soil. In: W.V. Bartholomew, F.E. Clark, eds. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1965, pp. 1-42.

  90. F.J. Stevenson. Origin and distribution of nitrogen in the soil. In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp. 1-42.

  91. R.D. Hauck, K.K. Tanji. Nitrogen transfers and mass balances. In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1985, pp. 891-925.

  92. O. Schreiner, B.E. Brown. Soil nitrogen. In: United States Department of Agriculture, Soils and Men, Yearbook of Agriculture, 1938. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1938, pp. 361-376.

  93. J.M. Bremner. Organic nitrogen in soils. In: C.A. Black, ed. Methods of Soil Analysis. Madison,Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1965, pp. 93-149.

  94. F.J. Stevenson. Organic forms of soil nitrogen, In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp. 67-122.

  95. R.B. Bradstreet. The Kjeldahl Method for Organic Nitrogen. New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 1-166.

  96. J.M. Bremner. Nitrogen availability indexes. In: W.V. Bartholomew, F.E. Clark, eds. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1965, pp. 1324-1345.

  97. A.V. Barker, M.L. Stratton, J.E. Rechcigl. Soil and by-product characteristics that impact the beneficial use of by-products. In: W.A. Dick, ed. Land Application of Agricultural, Industrial, and Municipal By-Products. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 2000, pp. 169-213.

  98. H.A. Ajwa, M.A. Tabatabai. Decomposition of different organic materials in soils. Bio. Fertile Soils 18:175-182, 1994.

  99. E.A. Paul, F.E. Clark. Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1996, pp. 1-340.

  100. S. Waksman. Humus. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1936, pp. 1-194.

  101. G. Stanford. Assessment of soil nitrogen availability. In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp. 651-688.

  102. D.R. Keeney, J.M. Bremner. Effect of cultivation on the nitrogen distribution in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:653-656, 1964.

  103. D.A. Laird, D.A. Martens, W.L. Kingery. Nature of clay-humic complexes in an agricultural soil. I. Chemical, biochemical, and spectroscopic analyses. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:1413-1418, 2001.

  104. A.D. McLaren, G.H. Peterson. Physical chemistry and biological chemistry of clay mineral-organic nitrogen complexes. In: W.V. Bartholomew, F.E. Clark, eds. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1965, pp. 259-284.

  105. G.W. Harmsen, G.J. Kolenbrander. Soil inorganic nitrogen. In: W.V. Bartholomew, F.E. Clark, eds. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1965, pp. 43-92.

  106. J.L. Young, R.W. Aldag. Inorganic forms of nitrogen in soil. In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp. 43-66.

  107. M.K. Firestone. Biological denitrification. In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp. 289-326.

  108. M. Alexander. Nitrification. In: W.V. Bartholomew, F.E. Clark, eds. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1965, pp. 307-343.

  109. E.L. Schmidt. Nitrification in soil. In: F.J. Stevenson, ed. Soil Nitrogen. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1982, pp. 253-288.

  110. S.S. Goyal, R.C. Huffaker. Nitrogen toxicity in plants. In: R.D. Hauck, ed. Nitrogen in Crop Production. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1984, pp. 97-118.

  111. M.L. Stratton, A.V. Barker. Growth and mineral composition of radish in response to nitrification inhibitors. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 112:13-17, 1987.

  112. L.G. Bundy, J.J. Meisinger. Nitrogen availability indices. In: R.W. Weaver, ed. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1994, pp. 951-984.

  113. W.C. Dahnke, E.H. Vasey. Testing for soil nitrogen. In: L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton, eds. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1973, pp. 97-114.

  114. D.R. Keeney. Nitrogen-Availability indices. In: A.L. Page, ed. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2, 2nd ed. Madison, Wis.: Agronomy 9, 1982, pp. 711-733.

  115. S.A. Waring, J.M. Bremner. Ammonium production in soil under water-logged conditions as an index of nitrogen availability. Nature 201:951-952, 1964.

  116. F.C. Boswell, A.C. Richer, L.E. Casida, Jr. Available soil nitrogen measurements by microbiological techniques and chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 26:254-257, 1962.

  117. D.R. Cullimore. A qualative method of assessing the available nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus in the soil. J. Sci. Food Agr. 17:321-323, 1966.

  118. A.H. Cornfield. Carbon dioxide production during incubation of soils treated with cellulose as a possible index of the nitrogen status of soils. J. Sci. Food Agric. 12:763-765, 1961.

  119. D.S. Jenkinson. Studies of methods of measuring forms of available soil nitrogen. J. Sci. Food Agric. 19:160-168, 1968.

  120. H.O. Buckman. Moisture and nitrate relations in dry-land agriculture. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 2:121-138, 1910.

  121. L.E. Call. The effect of different methods of preparing a seed bed for winter wheat upon yield, soil moisture, and nitrates. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 6:249-259, 1914.

  122. L.G. Bundy, E.S. Malone. Effect of residual profile nitrate on corn response to applied nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52:1377-1383, 1988.

  123. T. Ozus, J.J. Hanway. Comparisons of laboratory and greenhouse tests for nitrogen and phosphorus availability in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 30:224-228, 1966.

  124. W.E. Jokela, G.W. Randall. Corn yield and residual soil nitrate as affected by time and rate of nitrogen application. Agron. J. 81:720-726, 1989.

  125. G.W. Roth, R.H. Fox. Soil nitrate accumulations following nitrogen-fertilized corn in Pennsylvania. J. Environ. Qual. 19:243-248, 1990.

  126. W.C. White, J. Pesek. Nature of residual nitrogen in Iowa soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 23:39-42, 1959.

  127. J. Daliparthy, S.J. Herbert, P.L.M. Veneman. Dairy manure applications to alfalfa: crop response, soil nitrate, and nitrate in soil water. Agron. J. 86:927-933, 1994.

  128. J.S. Angle, C.M. Gross, R.L. Hill, M.S. McIntosh. Soil nitrate concentrations under corn as affected by tillage, manure, and fertilizer applications. J. Environ. Qual. 22:141-147, 1993.

  129. Z. Dou, R.H. Fox, J.D. Toth. Seasonal soil nitrate dynamics in corn as affected by tillage and nitrogen source. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59:858-864, 1995.

  130. A. Katupitiya, D.E. Eisenhauer, R.B. Ferguson, R.F. Spalding, F.W. Roeth. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on residual nitrate in the crop root zone and nitrate accumulation in the intermediate vadose zone. Trans. ASAE 40:1321-1327, 1997.

  131. C.R. Alvarez, R. Alvarez, H.S. Steinbach. Predictions of available nitrogen in soil profile depth using available nitrogen concentration in the surface layer. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 32:759-769, 2001.

  132. G.D. Binford, A.M. Blackmer, M.E. Cerrato. Relationship between corn yields and soil nitrate in late spring. Agron. J. 84:53-59, 1992.

  133. F.R. Magdoff. Understanding the Magdoff pre-sidedress nitrate test for corn. J. Prod. Agric. 4:297-305, 1991.

  134. F.R. Magdoff, W.E. Jokela, R.H. Fox, G.F. Griffith. A soil test for nitrogen availability in the northeastern United States. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 21:1103-1115, 1990.

  135. J.T. Sims, B.L. Vasilas, K.L. Gartley, B. Milliken, V. Green. Evaluation of soil and plant nitrogen tests for maize on manured soils of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Agron. J. 87:213-222, 1995.

  136. J.J. Meisinger, V.A. Bandel, J.S. Angle, B.E. O'Keefe, C.M. Reynolds. Preside dress soil nitrate test in Maryland. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56:1527-1532, 1992.

  137. J.R. Heckman, R. Govindasamy, D.J. Prostak, E.A. Chamberlain, W.T. Hlubik, R.C. Mickel, E.P. Prostko. Corn response to side dress nitrogen in relation to soil nitrate concentration. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27:575-583, 1996.

  138. G.K. Evanylo, M.M. Alley. Presidedress soil nitrogen test for corn in Virginia. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 28:1285-1301, 1997.

  139. H. Sainz-Rozas, H.E. Echeverria, G.A. Studdert, G. Dominguez. Evaluation of the presidedress soil nitrogen test for no-tillage maize fertilized at planting. Agron. J. 92:1176-1183, 2000.

  140. J.R. Heckman,W.T. Hublik, D.J. Prostak, J.W. Paterson. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate test for sweet corn. HortScience 30:1033-1036, 1995.

  141. T.K. Hartz, W.E. Bendixen, L. Wierdsma. The value of the presidedress soil nitrate testing as a nitrogen management tool in irrigated vegetable production. HortScience 35:651-656, 2000.

  142. J.R. Heckman, T. Morris, J.T. Sims, J.B. Sieczka, U. Krogmann, P. Nitzsche, R. Ashley. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate test is effective for fall cabbage. HortScience 37:113-117, 2002.

  143. H.H. Krusekopf, J.P. Mitchell, T.K. Hartz, E.M. May, E.M. Miyao, M.D. Cahn. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate test identifies processing tomato fields not requiring sidedress N fertilizer. HortScience 37:520-524, 2002.

  144. L.K. Porter, B.A. Stewart, H.J. Haas. Effects of long-term cropping on hydrolyzable organic nitrogen fractions in some Great Plains soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28:368-370, 1964.

  145. R.L. Mulvaney, S.A. Khan, R.G. Hoeft, H.M. Brown. A soil nitrogen fraction that reduces the need for nitrogen fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:1164-1172, 2001.

  146. S.A. Khan, R.L. Mulvaney, R.G. Hoeft. A simple soil test for detecting sites that are nonresponsive to nitrogen fertilizer. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:1751-1760, 2001.

  147. R.L. Mulvaney, S.A. Khan. Diffusion methods to determine different forms of nitrogen in soil hydrolysates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65:1284-1292, 2001.

  148. H.R. Schulten, M. Schnitzer. The chemistry of soil organic nitrogen: a review. Biol. Fert. Soils 26:1-15, 1998.

  149. W. Amelung, X. Shang, K.W. Flach,W. Zech. Amino sugars in native grassland soils along a climosequence in North America. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63:86-92, 1999.

  150. D. Solomon, J. Lehmann, W. Zech. Land use effects on amino sugar signature of chromic luvison in the semi-arid part of northern Tanzania. Biol. Fert. Soils 33:33-40, 2001.

  151. L.C. Axelrod, T.E. O'Hare. Production of synthetic ammonia. In: V. Sauchelli, ed. Fertilizer Nitrogen-its Chemistry and Technology. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp, 1964, pp. 58-88.

  152. U.S. Jones. Fertilizers and Soil Fertility. Reston, Va.: Reston Publishing Co., 1979, pp. 29-103.

  153. J. Pesek, G. Stanford, N.L. Case. Nitrogen production and use. In: R.A. Olson, ed. Fertilizer Technology & Use. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1971, pp. 217-269.

  154. I. Moldovan, M. Popovici, G. Chivu, The Technology of Mineral Fertilizers. London: The British Sulfur Corporation Ltd., 1969, pp. 1-793.

  155. A.V. Barker, H.A. Mills. Ammonium and nitrate nutrition of horticultural crops. Hortic. Rev. 2:395-423, 1980.

  156. M.S. Colgrove, Jr., A.N. Roberts. Growth of the azalea as influenced by ammonium and nitrate nitrogen. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 68:522-536, 1956.

  157. J.C. Cain. A comparison of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen on blueberries. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 59:161-166, 1952.

  158. D.A. Cox, J.G. Seeley. Ammonium injury to poinsettia: effects of NH4 - N: NO3 - N ratio and pH control in solution culture on growth, N absorption and N utilization. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 109:57-62, 1984.

  159. R.H. Hageman. Ammonium versus nitrate nutrition of higher plants. In: R.D. Hauck, ed. Nitrogen in Crop Production. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1984, pp. 67-85.

  160. R.J. Haynes. Uptake and assimiulation of mineral nitrogen by plants. In: R.J. Haynes, ed. Mineral Nitrogen in the Plant-Soil System. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press, 1986, pp. 303-378.

  161. H. Matsumoto, K. Tamura. Respiratory stress in cucumber roots treated with ammonium or nitrate nitrogen. Plant Soil 60:195-204, 1981.

  162. D.N. Maynard, A.V. Barker. Studies on the tolerance of plants to ammonium nutrition. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 94:235-239, 1969.

  163. H.M. Reisenauer. Absorption and utilization of ammonium nitrogen by plants. In: D.R. Nielsen, J.G. MacDonald, eds. Nitrogen in the Environment, Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press, 1978, pp. 157-189.

  164. H.E. Street, D.E.G. Sheat. The absorbtion and availability of nitrate and ammonium. In: W. Ruhland, ed., Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, Vol. 8. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1958, pp. 150-166.

  165. A.H. Uljee. Ammonium nitrogen accumulation and root injury to tomato plants. New Zealand J. Agric. Res. 7:343-356, 1964.

  166. H.M. Vines, T.D. Wedding. Some effects of ammonia on plant metabolism and possible mechanisms for ammonia toxicity. Plant Physiol. 35:820-825, 1960.

  167. J.K.R. Gasser. Nitrification inhibitors-their occurrence, production and effects of their use on crop yields and composition. Soils Fert. 33:547-554, 1970.

  168. J. Glasscock, A. Shaviv, J. Hagin. Nitrification inhibitors-interaction with applied ammonium concentration. J. Plant Nutr. 18:105-116, 1995.

  169. C.A.I. Goring. Control of nitrification of ammonium fertilizers and urea by 2-chloro-6- trichloromethylpyridine. Soil Sci. 93:431-439, 1962.

  170. R. Prasad, G.B. Rajale, B.A. Lakhdive. Nitrification retarders and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers. Adv. Agron. 23:337-383, 1971.

  171. S.C. Rao. Evaluation of nitrification inhibitors and urea placement in no-tillage winter wheat, Agron. J. 88:904-908, 1996.

  172. R.H. Fox, W.P. Piekielek, K.E. Macneal. Estimating ammonia volatilization losses from urea fertilizers using a simplified micrometerological sampler. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:596-601, 1996.

  173. M.A. Gameh, J.S. Angle, J.H. Axley. Effects of urea-potassium chloride and nitrogen transformations on ammonia volatilization from urea. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54:1768-1772, 1990.

  174. J.M. Bremner. Recent research on problems in the use of urea as a nitrogen fertilizer. Fert. Res. 42:321-329, 1995.

  175. S.E. Allen. Slow-release nitrogen fertilizers. In: R.D. Hauck, ed. Nitrogen in Crop Production. Madison, Wis.: American Society of Agronomy, 1984, pp. 195-206.

  176. J.B. Sartain, J.K. Kruse. Selected Fertilizers Used in Turfgrass Fertilization. Gainesville, Fla: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular CIR 1262, 2001.

  177. R.N. Carrow. Turfgrass response to slow-release nitrogen fertilizers. Agron. J. 89:491-496, 1997.

  178. M.F. Carter, P.L.G. Vlek, J.T. Touchton. Agronomic evaluation of new urea forms for flooded rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50:1055-1060, 1986.

  179. R.W. Moore, N.E. Christians, M.L. Agnew. Response of three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars to sprayable nitrogen fertilizer programs. Crop Sci. 36:1296-1301, 1996.

  180. R.L. Mikkelsen, H.M. Williams, A.D. Behel, Jr. Nitrogen leaching and plant uptake from controlledrelease fertilizers. Fert. Res. 37: 43-50, 1994.

  181. F.L. Wang, K. Alva. Leaching of nitrogen from slow-release urea sources in sandy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1454-1458, 1996.

  182. H.M. Keener, W.A. Dick, C. Marugg, R.C. Hansen. Composting spent press-molded, wood fiber pallets bonded with urea formaldehyde: a pilot scale evaluation. Compost Sci. Util. 2(3):73-82, 1994.

  183. D.E. Clay, G.L. Malzer, J.L. Anderson. Ammonia volatilization from urea as influenced by soil temperature, soil water content, and nitrification and hydrolysis inhibitors. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 54:263-266, 1990.

  184. G.A. Cowie. Decomposition of cyanamide and dicyandiamide. J. Agric. Sci. 9:113-136, 1918.

  185. M.D. Serna, F. Legaz, E. Primo-Millo. Efficacy of dicyandiamide as a soil nitrification inhibitor in citrus production. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:1817-1824, 1994.

  186. G.R. McVey, D.P. Horn, E.L. Scheiderer, A.D. Davidson. Correlation of analytical methods and biological activity of various sulfur-coated urea fertilizer products. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 68:785-788, 1985.

  187. R. Puchades, E.P. Yufera, J.L. Rubio. The release, diffusion and nitrification of nitrogen in soils surrounding sulfur-coated urea granules. Plant Soil 78:345-356, 1984.

  188. B.D. Brown, A.J. Hornbacher, D.V. Naylor. Sulfur-coated urea as a slow-release nitrogen source for onions. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 113:864-869, 1988.

  189. E.A. Guertal. Preplant slow-release nitrogen fertilizers produces similar bell pepper yields as split applications of soluble fertilizer. Agron. J. 92:388-393, 2000.

  190. W.R. Raun, D.H. Sander, R.A. Olson. Nitrogen fertilizer carriers and their placement for minimum till corn under sprinkler irrigation. Agron. J. 81:280-285, 1989.

  191. M. Zekri, R.C.J. Koo. Evaluation of controlled-release fertilizers for young citrus trees. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 116:987-999, 1991.

  192. J. Halevy. Efficiency of isobutylidene diurea, sulphur-coated urea and urea plus nitrapyrin, compared with divided dressings of urea, for dry matter production and nitrogen uptake of ryegrass. Exp. Agric. 23:167-179, 1987.

  193. L.B. Owens, W.M. Edwards, R.W. Van Keuren. Nitrate leaching from grassed lysimeters treated with ammonium nitrate or slow-release nitrogen fertilizer. J. Environ. Qual. 28:1810-1816, 1999.

  194. A.V. Barker, T.A. O'Brien, M.L. Stratton. Description of food processing by-products. In:W.A. Dick, ed. Land Application of Agricultural, Industrial, and Municipal By-Products. Madison, Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 2000, pp. 63-106.

  195. E.E. Huntley, A.V. Barker, M.L. Stratton. Composition and uses of organic fertilizers. In: J.E. Rechcigl, H.C. MacKinnon, eds. Agricultural Uses of By-Products and Wastes. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 1997, pp. 120-139.

  196. A.L. Mehring. Dictionary of Plant Foods. Philadelphia, Pa.: Ware Bros. Co., 1958, pp. 1-51.

  197. H.D. Chapman. Diagnostic Criteria for Plants and Soils. Riverside, Cal.: HD Chapman, 1965, pp. 1-793.

  198. L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, revised edition. Madison,Wis.: Soil Science Society of America, 1973, pp. 1-491.


Copyrights 2012 © | Disclaimer