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  Section: Plant Nutrition » Micronutrients » Boron
 
 
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Hydrated Boron Minerals

 
     
 
Content
Historical Information
  Determination of Essentiality
  Functions in Plants
    - Root Elongation and Nucleic Acid Metabolism
    - Protein, Amino Acid, and Nitrate Metabolism
    - Sugar and Starch Metabolism
    - Auxin and Phenol Metabolism
    - Flower Formation and Seed Production
    - Membrane Function
Forms and Sources of Boron in Soils
  Total Boron
  Available Boron
  Fractionation of Soil Boron
  Soil Solution Boron
  Tourmaline
  Hydrated Boron Minerals
Diagnosis of Boron Status in Plants
  Deficiency Symptoms
    - Field and Horticultural Crops
    - Other Crops
  Toxicity Symptoms
    - Field and Horticultural Crops
    - Other Crops
Boron Concentration in Crops
  Plant Part and Growth Stage
  Boron Requirement of Some Crops
Boron Levels in Plants
Soil Testing for Boron
  Sampling of Soils for Analysis
  Extraction of Available Boron
    - Hot-Water-Extractable Boron
    - Boron from Saturated Soil Extracts
    - Other Soil Chemical Extractants
  Determination of Extracted Boron
    - Colorimetric Methods
    - Spectrometric Methods
Factors Affecting Plant Accumulation of Boron
  Soil Factors
    - Soil Acidity, Calcium, and Magnesium
    - Macronutrients, Sulfur, and Zinc
    - Soil Texture
    - Soil Organic Matter
    - Soil Adsorption
    - Soil Salinity
  Other Factors
    - Plant Genotypes
    - Environmental Factors
    - Method of Cultivation and Cropping
    - Irrigation Water
Fertilizers for Boron
  Types of Fertilizers
  Methods and Rates of Application
References

 
Industrial deposits of boron are usually produced by chemical precipitation. Precipitation occurs following concentration on land, in brine waters in arid regions or as terrestrial evaporites and arid playa deposits (56). Precipitation also occurs as marine evaporites after concentration due to evaporation of seawater. Borates also form in salt domes and by further concentration of underground water in arid areas (56). The borate deposits of economic importance are restricted to arid areas because of the high solubility of these minerals.


Hydrated borates are formed originally as chemical deposits in saline lakes (57). The particular mineral suite formed is dependent on the chemical composition of the lake. Two kinds of borate deposits are formed in the arid western United States (57). Hydrated sodium borates form from lakes that have a high pH and that are high in sodium and low in calcium content. Hydrated sodium-calcium borates form from lakes of higher calcium content.
 
 


 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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