Algae, Tree, Herbs, Bush, Shrub, Grasses, Vines, Fern, Moss, Spermatophyta, Bryophyta, Fern Ally, Flower, Photosynthesis, Eukaryote, Prokaryote, carbohydrate, vitamins, amino acids, botany, lipids, proteins, cell, cell wall, biotechnology, metabolities, enzymes, agriculture, horticulture, agronomy, bryology, plaleobotany, phytochemistry, enthnobotany, anatomy, ecology, plant breeding, ecology, genetics, chlorophyll, chloroplast, gymnosperms, sporophytes, spores, seed, pollination, pollen, agriculture, horticulture, taxanomy, fungi, molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinfomatics, microbiology, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, medicinal plants, herbal medicines, chemistry, cytogenetics, bryology, ethnobotany, plant pathology, methodolgy, research institutes, scientific journals, companies, farmer, scientists, plant nutrition
Select Language:
 
 
 
 
Main Menu
Please click the main subject to get the list of sub-categories
 
Services offered
 
 
 
 
  Section: Plant Nutrition » Micronutrients » Manganese
 
 
Please share with your friends:  
 
 

Toxicity

 
     
 
Content
Introduction
Forms of Manganese and Abundance in Soils
Importance to Plants and Animals
  Essentiality of Manganese to Higher Plants
  Function in Plants
  Importance to Animals
Absorption and Mobility
  Absorption Mechanisms
  Distribution and Mobility of Manganese in Plants
Manganese Deficiency
  Prevalence
  Indicator Plants
  Symptoms
  Tolerance
Toxicity
  Prevalence
  Indicator Plants
  Symptoms
  Tolerance
Manganese and Diseases
Conclusion
References

Prevalence
Manganese toxicity is a major problem worldwide and occurs mainly in poorly drained, acid soils owing to the interactions mentioned previously. However, not all poorly drained soils are sources of manganese toxicity as reported by Beckwith and co-workers (99), who noted that flooding often increased the pH, thus reducing the availability of manganese. Tropical, subtropical, and temperate soils have all been reported to be sources of manganese at concentrations high enough to produce visible symptoms of toxicity. In the tropics, toxicity has been reported in tropical grasses grown in the Catalina (basalt) and the Fajardo (moderately permeable) clayey soils of Puerto Rico (100), and in ryegrass (Lolium spp. L.) grown on red–brown clayey loam and granite–mica schists in Uganda, Africa (101). Among the subtropical regions, toxicity has been reported in subtropical United States in poorly drained soils and soils on limestone (102) and on ultisols. However, the impermeability of soils does not seem essential for manganese toxicity (103). In southeastern Australia, manganese toxicity has been reported in fruit trees grown in neutral-pH duplex soils (104), in French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in manganese-rich basaltic soil (105), and in pasture legumes (106). There is very little information available on manganese toxicity in temperate regions, though one report found toxicity on soils characterized by low pH and high concentrations of readily exchangeable manganese (107).

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
Copyrights 2012 © Biocyclopedia.com | Disclaimer