Toxicity Indicator in Plants

Content

Introduction
Forms of Manganese and Abundance in Soils
Importance to Plants and Animals
  Essentiality of Manganese to Higher Plants
  Function in Plants
  Importance to Animals
Absorption and Mobility
  Absorption Mechanisms
  Distribution and Mobility of Manganese in Plants
Manganese Deficiency
  Prevalence
  Indicator Plants
  Symptoms
  Tolerance
Toxicity
  Prevalence
  Indicator Plants
  Symptoms
  Tolerance
Manganese and Diseases
Conclusion
References

A number of crops are considered sensitive to manganese toxicity, and these include alfalfa, cabbage, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.), clover (Trifolium spp. L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), sugar beet, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (74,108). An excess of one nutrient can aggravate a deficiency of another, and so symptoms of manganese toxicity bear some features of deficiency of another nutrient. Additionally, toxicity of manganese is often confused with aluminum toxicity as both often occur in acid soils. However, in some species such as wheat (109) and rice (110), the tolerance to these two toxicities is opposite (111).