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  Section: Principles of Horticulture » Physical properties of soil
 
 
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Topsoil and subsoil

 
     
 
Content
Physical properties of soil
  Plant requirements
  Composition of soil
  Formation of soils
  Natural soil profiles
  Soils of the British Isles
  Topsoil and subsoil
  Soil components
  Soil texture
  Soil structure
  Cultivations
  Management of main soil types

In natural conditions organic matter is more abundant at the surface and declines in concentration with depth, whereas under cultivation the organic matter is redistributed to create a distinct topsoil and subsoil with the boundary at ‘plough depth’. The dark colour that the decomposed organic matter gives the soil makes the boundary obvious by the colour change.

 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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