To determine the total hardness of the given samples by EDTA titrimetric method.]
Originally, the hardness of water was understood to be a measure of the capacity of water for precipitating soap.
Soap is precipitated chiefly by the calcium and magnesium ions commonly present in water, but may also be
precipitated by ions of other polyvalent metals, such as aluminium, iron, manganese, strontium and zinc, and by
hydrogen ions. Because, all but the first two are usually present in insignificant concentrations in natural waters,
hardness is defined as a characteristic of water, which represents the total concentration of just the calcium and the
magnesium ions expressed as calcium carbonate. However, if present in significant amounts, other hardness producing
metallic ions should be included.
When the hardness is numerically greater than the sum of the carbonate alkalinity and the bicarbonate alkalinity,
the amount of hardness, which is equivalent to the total alkalinity, is called carbonate hardness; the amount of
hardness in excess of this is called non-carbonate hardness. When the hardness is numerically equal to or less
than the sum of carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity all of the hardness is carbonate hardness and there is no noncarbonate
hardness. The hardness may range from zero to hundreds of milligrams per litre in terms of calcium
carbonate, depending on the source and treatment to which the water has been subjected.
Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and its sodium salts (EDTA) form a chelated soluble complex when added to
a solution of certain metal cations. If a small amount of a dye such as Eriochrome black T is added to an aqueous
solution containing calcium and magnesium ions at a pH of 10 ± 0.1, the solution will become wine red. If EDTA is
then added as a titrant, the calcium and magnesium will be complexed. After sufficient EDTA has been added to
complex all the magnesium and calcium, the solution will turn from wine red to blue. This is the end point of the
3. Erlenmeyer flask
4. Bottle etc.
Reagents (» click to check the preparation of reagents)
1. Standard EDTA titrant (0.01 M)
2. Eriochrome black T indicator
3. Ammonia buffer solution
1. Dilute 25 mL of sample (V) to about 50 mL with distilled water in an Erlenmeyer flask.
2. Add 1 mL of buffer solution.
3. Add two drops of indicator solution. The solution turns wine red in colour.
4. Add the standard EDTA titrant slowly with continuous stirring until the last reddish tinge disappears from
the solution. The colour of the solution at the end point is blue under normal conditions.
5. Note down the volume of EDTA added (V1
|Hardness as CaCO3=
||V1 x S x 1000
|| mg / L
S = mg CaCO3
equivalent to 1 mL of EDTA titrant
= 1 mg CaCO3
|Hardness as CaCO3=
|| = ..........mg / L