The translation of protein synthesis involves translation of the language of nucleic acids (available in the form of mRNA) into language of proteins. This is much more complex than transcription and involves initiation, elongation and termination of polypeptide chains. These steps, diagrammatically represented in Figure 34.1 for prokaryotes and in Figure 34.2 for eukaryotes, will be discussed in this section. However, for initiation and elongation of a polypeptide, the formation of aminoacyl transfer RNAs (AA-tRNAs) is a prerequisite, which will also be described briefly.
Fig. 34.1. Different steps (A-K) in the translation of mRNA molecule in bacterial system.
Fig. 34.2. Different steps (A-J) in the translation of mRNA molecule in eukaryotes (reticulocytes).