Plant and animal viruses as vectors

Content
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology 1.  Recombinant DNA and PCR (Cloning and Amplification of DNA)
Restriction enzymes in cloning
Techniques used in recombinant DNA 
Cloning vectors for recombinant DNA
Plasmids as vectors
Bacteriophages as vectors
Plant and animal viruses as vectors
Transposons as vectors
Artificial chromosome vectors for cloning large DNA segments
Construction of chimeric DNA
Palindromes and staggered cleavage
Adding poly dA at the 3' ends of the vector and poly dT at the 3' ends of DNA clone
Blunt end ligation by T4 DNA ligase
Cloning in bacteria and eukaryotes
Cloning in bacteria
Cloning in eukaryotes
Molecular probes 
Labelling of probes
Applications of molecular probes
Construction and screening of genomic and cDNA libraries
Gene amplification : PCR and its applications
cDNA library from mRNA
Colony (or plaque) hybridization for screening of libraries
Gene Amplification : PCR and Its Applications
The basic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Different schemes of PCR
Plant and animal viruses as vectors
A number of plant and animal viruses have also been used as vectors both for introducing foreign genes into cells and for gene amplification and expression in host cells. Following are some of the viruses that are commonly used as vectors : (i) plant viruses (cauliflower mosaic virus or CaMV, TMV, and geminiviruses); (ii) animal viruses (baculovirus, adenoviruses, papovaviruses, harpesvirus, retroviruses).