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  Section: General Biotechnology / Microbial Biotechnology
 
 
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Single Cell Protein (SCP) and Mycoprotein

 
     
 

Historical Background

For the first time, cultivation of white button mushroom (A. bisporus) started in France around 1630 (Atkins, 1983). In the beginning, it was grown in open conditions. Around 1810, a French garderner (Chambry) cultivated them in underground queries in Paris. The possibility of continuous production was demonstrated by Callow (1831) when he cultivated A. bisporus in a cropping house in England. He was able to produce about 1.5 lb/sq. ft. By 1925, mushroom was grown in caves in Holland. The U.S.A. took up this work in the late 19th century. After the second World War mushroom cultivation spread in about 80 countries. Nowadays, edible mushrooms are eaten in Africa, Australia, Switzerland, Italy, France, Germany, Japan, Europe, India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tibet and China.

 

Table 18.5. Distribution of edible mushrooms in India.

Mushroom

Distribution

Agaricus bisporus

Solan (Himachal Pradesh), Punjab

A. compersris (= Psalliota compestris)

Punjab, W. Bengal, Bihar, Jammu

Amanita vaginata

Uttar Pradesh, Deoban

Cantharellus cibarius

W. Bengal, Kashmir, Solan

Heterobasidium annostum

U.P. Punjab, H.P. Assam

Laccaria laccata

Sikkim, Mussorie, Assam

Lycoperdon perlatum

North-west Himalayas, Punjab, Darjeeling, H.P., Sikkim

Morchella esculenta

Punjab, Kashmir, H.P., Kumaon hills (U.P)

M. conica

H.P., Dehradun, Siwalik hills,

M. deliciosa

Kashmir, Kumaon hills, H.P.

Pleurotus sojar-caju

W. Bengal, foot hills of Himalaya

 

Distribution of edible mushrooms in India is given in Table 18.5. The common mushroom A. bisporus is abundant in cattle fields in Punjab. It is used by many people. The morel (M. esculenta) is found in Kashmir and hills of Kumaon region in U.P. Bhoteans consume Hypoxylon vernicosum. Kashmiri guchhi (Morchella spp.) is very popular which is sold even at the rate of Rs. 1000/kg dry mushroom.

 

In India, mushroom cultivation started long before a century, as the Volvariella valvacea was cultivated on paddy straw. Therefore, this mushroom is also known as the paddy straw mushroom. In 1950s, an attempt was made to cultivate mushroom in Coimbatore (Thomas et al, 1943). In 1962, Pleurotus flabellatus (Dhingri coroyester) was successfully cultivated in Mysore. Besides many attempts, its cultivation could not be popularized upto the late 1960s. For the first time an attempt was made for artificial cultivation of A. bisporus at Solan (Himachal Pradesh) where synthetic compost preparation technology was developed, by using horse dung and wheat straw.

 

Content

Advantages of producing microbial protein

Microorganisms use as single cell protein (SCP)

Substrates used for the production of SCP

Nutritional values of SCP

Genetic improvements of microbial cells

Production of algal biomass

 

Factors affecting bio­mass production

 

Harvesting the algal biomass

 

Spirulina as SCP, cultivation and uses

Production of bacterial and actinomycetous biomass

 

Method of production

 

Factors affecting biomass production

 

Product recovery

Production of yeast biomass

 

Factors affecting growth of yeast

 

Recovery of yeast biomass

Production of fungal biomass (Other than Mushrooms)

 

Growth conditions

 

Organic wastes as substrates

 

Traditional fungal foods

 

 

Shoyu

 

 

Miso

 

 

Sake

 

 

Tempeh  

Mushroom culture

 

Historical background

 

Present status of mushroom culture in India

 

Nutritional values

 

Cultivation methods

 

 

Obtaining pure culture 

 

 

Preparation of spawns

 

 

Formulation and preparation of composts

 

 

Spawning, spawn running and cropping

 

Control of pathogens and pests

 

Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom

 

Cultivation of white button mushroom

 

Cultivation of Dhingri (Pleurotus sajor-caju)

 

Recipes of mushroom


Rapid development took place at this centre. Modern Spawn Laboratory and Air Conditioned Cropping rooms were constituted under the guidance of an expert from Food and Agricultural Organizations (FAO).

 

From 1974, a coordinated scheme was launched at Solan, Bangalore, Ludhiana and New Delhi. FAO deputed its expert for improving the cultivation technology. Dr. W.A. Hayes came to India, who recommended for incorporation of molasses and brewer's grain in the preparation of synthetic compost. This increased the mushroom yield. In 1977, State Department of Horticulture (H.P.) launched a project of Rs. 1.27 crore, under which a Central Mother Unit (CMU) for bulk pasteurization of compost and casing soil was established. C.M.U. supplies about 80 tonnes of pasteurized compost per month to growers in Solan, Shimla and Sirmur districts (Sohi, 1988). During 1966-70 mushroom cultivation was introduced in Kashmir valley, where by the end of 1975, the number of growers increased to 90. This took up its cultivation as cottage industry in Srinagar and Jammu region.

 

In 1974, Uttar Pradesh Department of Agriculture (UPDA) started mushroom cultivation on exploratory trial at Vivekanand Parvatiya Krishi Anushandhan (VPKA), Almora. U.P. Govt. also sanctioned a project for mushroom cultivation to the Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital. At Almora Centre, two crops in a year are raised (i.e. in February-April and September-November) in natural conditions. The compost is prepared from agro-wastes i.e. straw of wheat, barley and oat and dehulled corn cobs, grasses, fresh leaves, etc.
 
     
 
 
     



     
 
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