Biotechnology & Environment

Biomass : A Renewable Source of Energy

» Energy sources : A general account 
    » Nuclear energy
    » Fossil fuel energy
    » Non-fossil and non-nuclear energy
 » Biomass as source of energy
    » Composition of biomass
      » Cellulose
      » Hemicellulose
      » Lignin
    » Terrestrial biomass
    » Aquatic biomass
      » Salvinia
      » Water hyacinth
    » Wastes as renewable source of energy
      » Composition of wastes
      » Sources of wastes (Industries, agriculture, forestry, municipal sources)
 » Biomass conversion
    » Non-biological process
      » Direct combustion-hog fuel
      » Pyrolysis
      » Gasification
      » Liquefaction
    » Biological process
      » Enzymatic digestion
      » Anaerobic digestion
      » Aerobic digestion
 

Biomass Energy (Bio-energy)

» Energy plantations
    » Social forestry
    » Silviculture energy farms (short rotation forestry)
      » Advantages of short rotation management
 » Petroleum plants (Petroplants)
    » Hydrocarbon from higher Plants
      » Hevea Rubber
     » Euphorbia
      » Guayule and Russian dandalion
      » Aak
    » Algal hydrocarbons
 » Alcohols : the liquid fuel
    » General account
    » Ethanol production
    » Fermentable substrate
    » Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials
      » Effect of substrate composition on hydrolysis
    » Fermentation
    » Recovery of ethanol
 » Gaseous fuels : biogas and hydrogen
    » What is biogas
    » Biogas technology in India
    » Benefits from biogas plants
    » Feed stock materials
    » Biogas production anaerobic digestion
      » Solubilization
      » Acidogenesis
      » Methanogenesis-methanogens, mechanism of methane production
    » Biogas production from differ­ent feed stocks
     » Salvinia
      » Water hyacinth
      » Municipal wastes
    » Factors affecting methane formation
 » Hydrogen : a new fuel
    » Photobiological process of H2 production
      » Hydrogenase and H2 production
      » Halobacteria
 

Environmental Biotechnology

» Bioremediation
    » In situ bioremediation
      » Intrinsic bioremediation
      » Engineered in situ bioremediation
    » Ex situ bioremediation
      » Solid phase system (composting, composting process)
      » Slurry phase system (aerated laggons, low shear airlift reactor)
      » Factors affecting slurry phase bioremediation
    » Bioremediation of hydrocarbon
      » Use of mixture of bacteria
      » Use of genetically engineered bacterial strains 
    » Bioremediation of Industrial wastes
      » Bioremediation of dyes
      » Bioremediation of heavy metals
      » Bioremediation of coal waste through VAM fungi
    » Bioremediation of xenobiotics
      » Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
      » Gene manipulation of pesticide-degrading microorganisms
 » Utilization of sewage, and agro-wastes
    » Production of single cell protein
    » Biogas from sewage
    » Mushroom production on agro-wastes
    » Vermicomposting
 » Microbial leaching (bioleaching)   
    » Microorganisms used in leaching
    » Chemistry of leaching
      » Direct leaching
      » Indirect leaching
    » Leaching process (slope leaching heap leaching in situ leaching)
    » Examples of bioleaching
      » Copper leaching
      » Uranium leaching
      » Gold and silver leaching
      » Silica leaching
 » Hazards of environmental engineering
    » Survival of released GMMs in the environment
      » Adaptive mutagenesis in GMMs
      » Gene transfer from GMMs into other microorganisms
      » Gene transfer via conjugative transposons
      » Effect of environmental factors on gene transfer
    » Ecological impact of GMMs released into the environment
      » Growth inhibition of natural strains
      » Growth stimulation of indigenous strains
      » Replacement of natural strains
    » Monitoring of GEMs in the environment
      » Risk assessment of the GEMs released into the environment