General Biochemistry


Content of General Biochemistry
- Bioenergetics
 
» Introduction to Bioenergetics
» Catabolic Metabolism: the Synthesis of Atp
    » Glycolysis and Fermentation
    » Oxidation of Pyruvate: the Citric Acid Cycle
    » Oxidation of Fats and Oils, Major Metabolic Fuels
    » Catabolism of Proteins and Amino Acids
    » Summary
» Photosynthesis
    » Light Reactions
    » Co2 Reduction
    » Atp Synthesis Atp Synthesis in ch
» Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
» Illustrations of the Uses of Atp: Ion Transport, Biosynthesis, and Motility
    » Ion Transport
    » Biosynthetic Use of Atp
    » Atp and Motility
» Concluding Statements
   
- Enzyme Mechanisms
 
» The Impetus
» Introduction to Enzymes as Catalysts
» Enzyme Kinetics
» Illustrative Examples
    » α - Chymotrypsin
    » Dihydrofolate Reductase
    » Phosphate Transfer
    » Triosephosphate Isomerase
    » Aspartate Aminotransferase
    » Cytochrome P450
» Origins of the Catalytic Efficiency of Enzymes
» Bibliography of Enzyme Mechanisms
   
- Food Colors
 
» About Food Colors
» Introduction to Food Colors
» Natural Food Pigments
    » Heme Pigments
    » Chlorophylls
    » Carotenoids of Food Colors
    » Flavonoid Pigments
    » Betalains
    » Miscellaneous Natural Food Colors
» Food Browning
    » Enzymatic Browning
    » Nonenzymatic Browning
» Color Additives in Foods
» Bibliography of Food Colors
   
- Glycoconjugates and Carbohydrates
 
» Introduction to Glycoconjugates and Carbohydrates
» Monosaccharides
    » Derivatives—Natural and Laboratory
    » Chemical Transformations
    » Biosynthesis
» Oligosaccharides
» Polysaccharides
    » Homopolysaccharides
    » Heteropolysaccharides
» Glycoconjugates
    » N-Linked Glycoproteins
    » O-Linked Glycoconjugates
» Analytical Methods
» Bibliography of Glycoconjugates and Carbohydrates
   
- Ion Transport Across Biological Membranes
 
» Introduction to Ion Transport Across Biological Membranes
» Relationship Between Transmembrane Inorganic Ion Flux and Transmembrane Potential
» Mechanism of Transmembrane Inorganic Ion Flux
» Inorganic Ion Transport and the Perception of Light
» Inorganic Ion Transport and Integration of Environmental Information
» Inorganic Ion Transport and the Rapid Transmission of Electrical Signals Over Long Distances (Up to ~1 M)
» Properties of the Protein (Potassium Channel) That Allows K+ But Not Na+ to Cross the Membrane
» Inorganic Ion Transport Against A Concentration Gradient At Expense of Atp Hydrolysis
» Conclusion and Outlook
» Bibliography of Ion Transport Across Biological Membranes
   
- Lipoprotein Cholesterol Metabolism
 
» Lipid Absorption
» Plasma Lipoprotein Structure
» Chylomicron Metabolism
» VLDL Metabolism (Endogenous Triglyceride Metabolism)
» IDL and LDL Metabolism
» Apolipoproteins Mediate Lipoprotein Metabolism
» The LDL Receptor
» Familial Hypercholesterolemia
» How Do Sterols Regulate Gene Expression?
» Other Lipoprotein Receptors
» HDL and “Reverse Cholesterol Transport”
» Tangier Disease and Familial Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
» LP(A) and APO(A)
» Common Isoforms of Apolipoprotein E (Apoe)
» Apo-E and Alzheimer’s Disease
» Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia and Hypertriglyceridemia
» Treatment of Lipoprotein Disorders
» Final Perspective
» Bibliography of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Metabolism
   
- Membrane Structure
 
» The Main Structure
» Introduction to Membrane Structure
» Membrane Lipids
» The Membrane–Water Interface
» Hydrophobic Core Region
» Phase Behavior of Lipids and Membrane Domain Formation
» Interaction of Membrane Lipids With Amphiphilic Molecules and Transmembrane Proteins
» Concluding Remarks
» Bibliography of Membrane Structure
   
- Natural Antioxidants in Foods
 
» Atmospheric (Triplet)
» Free Radical Scavengers
    » Phenolic Antioxidants
    » Ascorbate
    » Thiols
    » Carotenoids of Natural Antioxidants in Foods
» Metal Chelators
» Antioxidant Enzymes
» Conclusion
» Bibliography of Natural Antioxidants in Foods
   
- Nucleic Acid Synthesis
 
» Nucleic Acids
» Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids
    » Basic Chemical Structure
    » Base Pairing in Nucleic Acids: Double Helical Structure of Dna
    » Size, Structure, Organization, and Complexity of Genomes
    » Information Storage, Processing, and Transfer
    » Chromosomal Dna Compaction and Its Implications in Replication and Transcription
    » DNA Sequence and Chromosome Organization
    » Repetitive Sequences: Selfish DNA
    » Chromatin Remodeling and Histone Acetylation
» Nucleic Acid Syntheses
    » Similarity of DNA and RNA Synthesis
    » DNA Replication Vs Transcription: Enzymatic Processes
    » Multiplicity of DNA and RNA Polymerases
» DNA Replication and Its Regulation
    » DNA Replication
    » Regulation of DNA Replication
    » Regulation of Bacterial DNA Replication at the Level of Initiation
    » DNA Chain Elongation and Termination in Prokaryotes
    » General Features of Eukaryotic DNA Replication
    » Licensing of Eukaryotic Genome Replication
    » Fidelity of DNA Replication
    » Replication of Telomeres—The End Game
    » Telomere Shortening: Linkage Between Telomere Length and Limited Life Span
» Maintenance of Genome Integrity
» DNA Manipulations and their Applications
» Transcriptional Processes
    » Recognition of Prokaryotic Promoters and Role of S-Factors
    » Regulation of Transcription in Bacteria
    » Eukaryotic Transcription
    » RNA Splicing in Metazoans
    » Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
    » Fidelity of Transcription (RNA Editing)
» Chemical Synthesis of Nucleic Acids (Oligonucleotides)
» Bibliography of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
   
- Protein Folding
 
» Proteins
» Introduction to Protein Folding
» Stability of the Tertiary Fold
» Folding Pathways
» Empirical Approaches
    » General Experimental Strategies
    » Basic Thermodynamic Relationships
    » Experimental Signals
    » Kinetics Experiments
» Closing Comments
» Bibliography of Protein Folding
   
  Protein Structure
 
» Introduction to Protein Structure
» Amino Acids
» Protein Structure Determination
» Structural Hierachy
» Secondary Structural Motifs
» Protein Stability
» Tertiary Structure
» Membrane Proteins
» Superfamilies and Structural Evolution
» Quaternary Structure
» Conclusions
» Bibliography of Protein Structure
   
  Protein Synthesis
 
» Introduction to Protein Synthesis
» Information Transfer and the Genetic Code
» Transfer Rnas
» Aminoacyl–Trna Synthetases
» An Overview of Translation
» Translation Initiation
» Elongation
» Termination
» Ribosome Recycling
» Molecular Mimicry By Translational Factors
» Translational Accuracy
» The Ribosome
» Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
» Post-Translational Modifications
» Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis
» Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis
» Protein Synthesis and the Rna World
» Bibliography of Protein Synthesis
   
  Vitamins and Coenzymes
 
» Coenzymes
» The Discovery of Vitamins and Coenzymes
» Nutritional Recommendations
» Chemical Properties and Functions
    » Coenzyme A, An Acyl Group Carrier and Activator
    » Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (Nad+) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (Fad), Hydrogen and Electron Carriers
    » Cleaving C—C Bonds With the Help of Coenzymes
    » Carriers of Single-Carbon Compounds, and Other Roles of Pterin Coenzymes
    » Antioxidant Systems
    » Vitamin A and Vision
    » Vitamins A and D as Prohormones
    » Vitamin K and Blood Clotting
    » Recently Discovered Coenzymes and Prosthetic Groups
» Bibliography of Vitamins and Coenzymes