Genes & Genetic Engineering

Genes : Nature, Concept and Synthesis

» Chemical nature of DNA
    » Chemical composition
    » Nucleotides, nucleosides
    » Polynucleotides
    » Chargaff's rule of equivalence
 » Physical nature of DNA
    » Watson and Cricks model of DNA
    » Circular and superhelical DNA
    » Organization of DNA in eukaryotes
 » Structure of RNA
 » Gene concept
 » Units of a gene
    » Cistron
    » Recon
    » Mutan
 » Split genes (introns)
    » RNA splicing
    » Ribozyme
    » Evolution of split genes
 » Overlapping gene
 » Gene organization
 » Gene expression
 » Gene regulation
    » Transcription
      » The lac operon (structural gene, operator gene, promoter gene and repressor gene)
 » Artificial synthesis of genes
    » Synthesis of a gene for yeast alanine tRNA
    » Synthesis of a gene for bacterial tyrosine tRNA
    » Synthesis of a human leukocyte interferon gene
 » Gene synthesis by using mRNA
 » Gene machine
 » The PCR
    » Amplification of DNA (melting of target DNA, annealing of primers, primer extension)
    » Application of PCR technology


Tools of Genetic Engineering

» Enzymes
    » Exonucleases
    » Endonucleases
    » Restriction endonucleases
      » Nomenclature
 » Example of some enzymes
    » SI nuclease
    » DNA ligases
    » Alkaline phosphatase
    » Reverse transcriptase
    » DNA Polymerase
 » Foreign DNA
 » Cloning vectors
    » Plasmids
    » Bacteriophages
      » Insertion vector
      » Replacement vector
    » Cosmids
    » Phasmids
 » cDNA Clone bank
 » Gene bank (Genomic Library)
 » Electrophoresis


Techniques of Genetic Engineering

» Gene cloning in prokaryotes
    » Isolation of DNA to be cloned 
    » Insertion of DNA fragment into vector 
      » Use of restriction Linkers
      » Use of homopolymer tails
    » Transfer of recombinant DNA into bacterial cells
    » Selection of clones
      » Colony hybridization techniques
      » In vitro translation technique
      » Immunological tests
      » Blotting Techniques
    » Recovery of cells
    » Expression of cloned DNA
      » Shine-Dalgano sequence
      » Expression vectors
 » Gene cloning in eukaryotes
    » Plant cells
      » Yeasts
      » Filamentous fungi
      » Agrobacterium plasmids
      » Plant cell transformation
      » Plant cell transformation by ultrasonication
      » Liposome mediated gene transfer
    » Animal cell  
      » Animal viruses
      » Electroporation
      » Particle bombardment
      » Microinjection
      » Direct transformation
 » Site directed mutagenesis
    » Methods of mutagenesis


Genetic Engineering for Human Welfare

» Cloned genes and production of chemicals
    » Human peptide hormone genes
      » Insulines
      » Somatotropin
      » Somatostatin
      » β-endorphin
    » Human interferon genes
    » Genes for vaccines
      » Vaccine for hepatitis-B virus
      » Vaccines for Rabies virus
      » Vaccines for poliovirus
      » Vaccine for foot and mouth disease virus
      » Vaccines for small pox virus
      » Malaria vaccines
      » DNA vaccines
    » Genes associated with genetic diseases
      » Phenylketonuria
      » Urokinase
      » Thalassaemia
      » Hemophilia
    » Enzyme engineering
    » Commercial chemicals
 » Prevention, diagnosis and cure of diseases
    » Prevention of diseases
    » Diagnosis of diseases
      » Parasitic diseases
      » Monoclonal antibodies
      » Antenatal diagnosis
    » Gene therapy
      » Types of gene therapy
      » Methods of gene therapy
      » Success of gene therapy
      » Potential of gene delivering system
      » Future needs of gene therapy in India
 » DNA profiling (fingerprinting)
    » Methods of DNA profiling
    » Application of DNA profiling
      » Genetic databank
      » Reuniting the lost children
      » Solving disputed problems of parentage, identity of criminals, rapists, etc
      » Immigrant dispute
    » Hurdles of DNA profiling
 » Animal and plant improvement
    » Transgenic Farm Animals
    » Crop Improvements
      » Transgenic plants
      » Nif gene transfer
      » Phaseolin gene transfer
      » Conversion of C3 plants to C4 plants
      » Herbicide resistant plants
      » Insect pest resistant plants
      » Plant improvement through genetic transformation
    » Crop Protection
      » Use of antagonists
      » Use of insecticides
 » Abatement of pollution