Biotechnology Methods

Tools and Techniques in Biological Studies
 - Spectrophotometry
 - Electrophoresis
 - Column Chromatography
 - pH Meter
 - Centrifugation
 - Ultrasonic Cell Disruption
 - Conductivity Meter
 - Radioactive Tracers
 - Autoradiography
 - Photography
 - Statistics
 - Graphs
 - Computers


Biochemistry
 - Carbohydrates
 - Qualitative Tests
 - Qualitative Analysis
 - Estimate the Amount of Reducing Sugars
 - Estimation of Reducing Sugar by Somogyi's Method
 - Estimation of Sugar by Folin-Wu Method
 - Estimation of Sugar by Hagedorn-Jenson Method
 - Estimation of Reducing Sugars by the Dinitro Salicylic Acid (DNS) Method
 - Determination of Blood Glucose by Hagedorn-Jenson Method
 - Determining Blood Sugar by Nelson and Somogyi's Method
 - Determination of Blood Glucose by the O-Toluidine Method
 - Estimation of Protein by the Biuret Method
 - Estimation of Protein by the FC-Method
 - Protein Assay by Bradford Method
 - Estimation of Protein by the Lowry Protein Assay
 - Biuret Protein Assay
 - Estimation of DNA by the Diphenylamine Method
 - Estimation of RNA by the Orcinol Method




















Enzymology
 - Enzymes
 - Demonstrating the Presence of Catalase in Pig's Liver
 - Determining the Optimum pH for Trypsin
 - Extraction of Tyrosinase
 - Preparation of Standard Curve
 - Enzyme Concentration
 - Effects of pH
 - Effects of Temperature
 - Computer Simulation of Enzyme Activity
 - Kinetic Analysis
 - Determination of Km and Vmax
 - Addition of Enzyme Inhibitors
 - Protein Concentration/Enzyme Activity
 - Studying the Action and Activity of Amylase on Starch Digestion
 - Determination of the Effect of pH on the Activity of Human Salivary a-Amylase
 - Determining the Effect of Temperature on the Activity of Human Salivary a-Amylase
 - Construction of the Maltose Calibration Curve


Electrophoresis
 - Electrophoresis
 - Preparation of SDS-Polyacrylamide Gels
 - Separation of Protein Standards: SDS-PAGE
 - Coomassie Blue Staining of Protein Gels
 - Silver Staining of Gels
 - Documentation
 - Western Blots
 - Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Poly-Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)
 - Preparation of Polyacrylamide Gels
 - Agarose Gel Electrophoresis


Microbiology
 - Introduction
 - The Microscopy
 - The Bright Field Microscope
 - Introduction to the Microscope and Comparison of Sizes and Shapes of Microorganisms
 - Cell Size Measurements: Ocular and Stage Micrometers
 - Measuring Depth
 - Measuring Area
 - Cell Count by Hemocytometer or Measuring Volume
 - Measurement of Cell Organelles
 - Use of Darkfield Illumination
 - The Phase Contrast Microscope
 - The Inverted Phase Microscope
 - Aseptic Technique and Transfer of Microorganisms
 - Control of Microorganisms by using Physical Agents
 - Control of Microorganisms by using Disinfectants and Antiseptics
 - Control of Microorganisms by using Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
 - Isolation of Pure Cultures from a Mixed Population
 - Bacterial Staining
 - Direct Stain and Indirect Stain
 -�Gram Stain and Capsule Stain
 - Endospore Staining and Bacterial Motility
 - Enumeration of Microorganisms
 - Biochemical Test for Identification of Bacteria
 - Triple Sugar Iron Test
 - Starch Hydrolysis Test (II Method)
 - Gelatin Hydrolysis Test
 - Catalase Test
 - Oxidase Test
 - IMVIC Test
 - Extraction of Bacterial DNA
 - Medically Significant Gram–Positive Cocci (GPC)
 - Protozoans, Fungi, and Animal Parasites
 - The Fungi, Part 1-The Yeasts
 - Performance Objectives
 - The Fungi, Part 2-The Molds
 - Viruses: The Bacteriophages
 - Serology, Part 1–Direct Serologic Testing
 - Serology, Part 2–Indirect Serologic Testing




















Cell Biology and Genetics
 - Cell Cycles
 - Meiosis in Flower Buds of Allium Cepa-Acetocarmine Stain
 - Meiosis in Grasshopper Testis (Poecilocerus Pictus)
 - Mitosis in Onion Root Tip (Allium Cepa)
 - Differential Staining of Blood
 - Buccal Epithelial Smear and Barr Body
 - Vital Staining of DNA and RNA in Paramecium
 - Induction of Polyploidy
 - Mounting of Genitalia in Drosophila Melanogaster
 - Mounting of Genitalia in the Silk Moth Bombyx Mori
 - Mounting of the Sex Comb in Drosophila Melanogaster
 - Mounting of the Mouth Parts of the Mosquito
 - Normal Human Karyotyping
 - Karyotyping
 - Black and White Film Development and Printing for Karyotype Analysis
 - Study of Drumsticks in the Neutrophils of Females
 - Study of the Malaria Parasite
 - Vital Staining of DNA and RNA in Paramecium
 - Sex-Linked Inheritance in Drosophila Melanogaster
 - Preparation of Somatic Chromosomes from Rat Bone Marrow
 - Chromosomal Aberrations
 - Study of Phenocopy
 - Study of Mendelian Traits
 - Estimation of Number of Erythrocytes [RBC] in Human Blood
 - Estimation of Number of Leucocytes (WBC) in Human Blood
 - Culturing Techniques and Handling of Flies
 - Life Cycle of the Mosquito (Culex Pipiens)
 - Life Cycle of the Silkworm (Bombyx Mori)
 - Vital Staining of Earthworm Ovary
 - Culturing and Observation of Paramecium
 - Culturing and Staining of E.coli (Gram’s Staining)
 - Breeding Experiments in Drosophila Melanogaster
 - Preparation of Salivary Gland Chromosomes
 - Observation of Mutants in Drosophila Melanogaster
 - ABO Blood Grouping and Rh Factor in Humans
 - Determination of Blood Group and Rh Factor
 - Demonstration of the Law of Independent Assortment
 - Demonstration of Law of Segregation


Molecular Biology
 - The Central Dogma
 - Protein Synthesis in Cell Free Systems
 - Chromosomes
 - Polytene Chromosomes of Dipterans
 - Salivary Gland Preparation (Squash Technique)
 - Extraction of Chromatin
 - Chromatin Electrophoresis
 - Extraction and Electrophoresis of Histones
 - Karyotype Analysis
 - In Situ Hybridization
 - Culturing Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes
 - Microslide Preparation of Metaphases for In-Situ Hybridization
 - Staining Chromosomes (G-Banding)
 - Nucleic Acids
 - Extraction of DNA from Bovine Spleen
 - Purification of DNA
 - Characterization of DNA
 - DNA-Dische Diphenylamine Determination
 - Melting Point Determination
 - CsCl-Density Separation of DNA
 - Phenol Extraction of rRNA (Rat liver)
 - Spectrophotometric Analysis of rRNA
 - Determination of Amount of RNA by the Orcinol Method
 - Sucrose Density Fractionation
 - Nucleotide Composition of RNA
 - Isolation of Genomic DNA—DNA Extraction Procedure
 - Isolation of Genomic DNA from Bacterial Cells
 - Preparation of Genomic DNA from Bacteria
 - Extraction of Genomic DNA from Plant Source
 - Extraction of DNA from Goat Liver
 - Isolation of Cotton Genomic DNA from Leaf Tissue
 - Arabidopsis Thaliana DNA Isolation
 - Plant DNA Extraction
 - Phenol/Chloroform Extraction of DNA
 - Ethanol Precipitation of DNA
 - Isolation of Mitochondrial DNA
 - Isolation of Chloroplast DNA
 - DNA Extraction of Rhizobium (CsCl Method)
 - Isolation of Plasmids
 - RNA Isolation
 - Preparation of Vanadyl-Ribonucleoside Complexes that Inhibit Ribonuclease Activity
 - RNA Extraction Method for Cotton
 - Isolation of RNA from Bacteroids
 - Isolation of RNA from Free-Living Rhizobia
 - Estimation of DNA purity and Quantification
 - Fungal DNA Isolation
 - Methylene Blue DNA Staining
 - Transformation
 - Blotting Techniques—Southern, Northern, Western Blotting
 - Preparing the Probe
 - Southern Blotting (First Method)
 - Southern Blotting (Second Method)
 - Western Blotting
 - Western Blot Analysis of Epitoped-tagged Proteins using the Chemifluorescent Detection Method for Alkaline Phosphatase-conjugated Antibodies
 - Southern Blot
 - Southern Analysis of Mouse Toe/Tail DNA
 - Northern Blotting
 - Restriction Digestion Methods—Restriction Enzyme Digests
 - Restriction Digestion of Plasmid, Cosmid, and Phage DNAs
 - Manual Method of Restriction Digestion of Human DNA
 - Preparation of High-Molecular-Weight Human DNA Restriction Fragments in Agarose Plugs
 - Restriction Enzyme Digestion of DNA
 - Electroelution of DNA Fragments from Agarose into Dialysis Tubing
 - Isolation of Restriction Fragments from Agarose Gels by Collection onto DEAE Cellulose
 - Ligation of Insert DNA to Vector DNA
 - PCR Methods (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
 - Polymerase Chain Reaction
 - DNA Amplification by the PCR Method


Tissue Culture Techniques
 - Tissue Culture Methods
 - Plant Tissue Culture
 - Plant Tissue Culture (Cont.)
 - Many Dimensions of Plant Tissue Culture Research
 - What is Plant Tissue Culture?
 - Uses of Plant Tissue Culture
 - Plant Tissue Culture demonstration by Using Somaclonal Variation to Select for Disease Resistance
 - Demonstration of Tissue Culture for Teaching
 - Preparation of Plant Tissue Culture Media
 - Plant Tissue Culture Media
 - Preparation of Protoplasts
 - Protoplast Isolation, Culture, and Fusion
 - Agrobacterium Culture and Agrobacterium — Mediated transformation
 - Isolation of Chloroplasts from Spinach Leaves
 - Preparation of Plant DNA using
 - Suspension Culture and Production of Secondary Metabolites
 - Protocols for Plant Tissue Culture
 - Sterile Methods in Plant Tissue Culture
 - Media for Plant Tissue Culture
 - Safety in Plant Tissue Culture
 - Preparation of Media for Animal Cell Culture
 - Aseptic Technique
 - Culture and Maintenance of Cell Lines
 - Trypsinizing and Subculturing Cells from a Monolayer
 - Cellular Biology Techniques
 - In Vitro Methods
 - Human Cell Culture Methods


Hydrolysis/Catalase/Oxidase Tests
 - Starch Hydrolysis Test
 - Gelatin Hydrolysis Test
 - Catalase Test
 - Oxidase Test