Biomass Energy (Bio-energy)

In Biomass : A Renewable Source of Energy much has been described about biomass and its resources. In this context various techniques for the conversion of biomass into energy have also been discussed.

However, in the present section different forms of energy obtainable from a number of sources are described in detail.

Biomass based energy (bio-energy), derived from sun via biological routes, has been fulfilling the human need for centuries as fossil fuel. With the expanding world population, increasing energy demand and diminishing stock of fossil fuel, most of the countries have paid much attention on the bioenergy programmes.

However, there is basic need to develop technologies and standardize the techniques, to reach to village level. Among the various non-conventional sources of energy, forest biomass plays a significant role in solving the fuel wood crisis. It is obvious that one-seventh of world's fuel supplies are biomass. This figure is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil per day.

The area of bio-energy involves sophisticated research and development work in botany (plant physiology and genetics), agriculture, forestry,phytochemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, fuel research, heat physics and many aspects of engineering, so that a complete package from agriculture, processing, conversion, engine systems and delivery to users is developed (Khoshoo, 1988).


Many countries viz., Bangladesh, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sweden, U.K., U.S.A., are promoting research and development activities in bioenergy. In addition, several international agencies, such as Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Development Research Centre (IDRC), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO), United Nations Environmental Organizations (UNEP), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and World Health Organization (WHO) are also engaged in bioenergy research and development programmes.

Content

» Energy plantations
» Social forestry
» Silviculture energy farms (short rotation forestry)
» Advantages of short rotation management
» Petroleum plants (Petroplants)
» Hydrocarbon from higher Plants
» Hevea Rubber
» Euphorbia
» Guayule and Russian dandalion
» Aak
» Algal hydrocarbons
» Alcohols : the liquid fuel
» General account
» Ethanol production
» Fermentable substrate
» Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials
» Effect of substrate composition on hydrolysis
» Fermentation
» Recovery of ethanol
» Gaseous fuels : biogas and hydrogen
» What is biogas
» Biogas technology in India
» Benefits from biogas plants
» Feed stock materials
» Biogas production anaerobic digestion
» Solubilization
» Acidogenesis
» Methanogenesis-methanogens, mechanism of methane production
» Biogas production from differ­ent feed stocks
» Salvinia
» Water hyacinth
» Municipal wastes
» Factors affecting methane formation
» Hydrogen : a new fuel
» Photobiological process of H2 production
» Hydrogenase and H2 production
» Halobacteria