Arachis hypogaea Linn. Leguminosae. EARTH NUT. EARTH
ALMOND. GOOBER. GRASS NUT. GROUND NUT. PEANUT.
This plant is now under cultivation in warm climates
for the seeds which are largely eaten as nuts, and from which an oil is
extracted to be used as a substitute for olive oil to which it is equal in
quality. Although now only under field cultivation in America, yet, in
1806, McMahon included this plant among kitchen-garden esculents.
For a long time, writers on botany were uncertain whether the peanut
was a native of Africa or of America, but, since Squier has found this
seed in jars taken from the mummy graves of Peru, the question of its
American origin seems settled. The first writer who notes it, is Oviedo in
his Cronica de las Indias, who says "the Indians cultivate very much
the fruit mani." Before this, the French colonists, sent in 1555 to the
Brazilian coast, became acquainted with it under the name of mandobi.
The peanut was figured by Laet, 1625, and by Marcgravius, 1648, as
the anchic of the Peruvians, the mani of the Spaniards. It seems to be
mentioned by Garcilasso de la Vega, 1609, as being raised by the
Indians under the name, ynchic. The Spaniards call it mani but all the
names, he observes, which the Spaniards give to the fruits and
vegetables of Peru belong to the language of the Antilles. The fruit is
raised underground, he says, and "is very like marrow and has the
taste of almonds." Marcgravius, 1648, and Piso, 1658, describe and
figure the plant, under the name of mandubi, as common and
indigenous in Brazil.
They cite Monardes, an author late in the
sixteenth century, as having found it in Peru with a different name,
anchic. Father Merolla, 1682, under the name of mandois, describes a
vegetable of Congo which grows "three or four together like vetches but
underground and are about the bigness of an ordinary olive. From
these milk is extracted like to that drawn from almonds." This may be
the peanut. In China, especially in Kwangtung, peanuts are grown in
large quantities and their consumption by the people is very great. The
peanut was included among garden plants by McMahon, 1806; Burr,
1863, describes three varieties; and Jefferson speaks of its culture in
Virginia in 1781. Its culture was introduced into France in 1802, and
the peanut was described among pot-herbs by Noisette, 1829.
Aralia cordata Thunb. Araliaceae. UDO.
The young shoots of this species provide an excellent culinary
vegetable. They are used in soups in Japan. According to Siebold, this
plant is universally cultivated in Japan, in fields and gardens. It is
valued for its root which is eaten like scorzonera, but the young stalks
are likewise a delicious vegetable.
A. (Panax) quinquefolia Decne & Planch. GINSENG.
The root is collected in large quantities in the hilly
regions of Ohio, western Virginia, Minnesota and other parts of eastern
America for export to China where it is valued as a medicine. Some
persons in this country are in the habit of chewing the root, having
acquired a relish for its taste, and it is chiefly to supply the wants of
these that it is kept in the shops.
Araucaria bidwillii Hook. Coniferae (Araucariaceae). BUNYABUNYA.
Australia; the bunya-bunya of the natives.
The cones furnish an edible
seed which is roasted. Each tribe of the natives has its own set of trees
and each family its own allotment among them. These are handed down
from generation to generation with the greatest exactness and are
believed to be the only hereditary personal property possessed by the
A. brasiliana A. Rich. BRAZILIAN PINE.
The seeds are very large and are eatable. They are sold as an
article of food in the streets of Rio de Janeiro.
A. imbricate Pav. CHILIAN PINE. MONKEY PUZZLE.
The seeds are eaten by the Indians, either fresh, boiled
or roasted, and from them is distilled a spirituous liquor. Eighteen
good-sized trees will yield enough for a man's sustenance all the year
Arbutus andrachne Linn. Ericaceae. STRAWBERRY TREE.
East Mediterranean countries.
Its fruit was eaten during the Golden
Age. Don says the fruit seems to be used in Greece.
A. canariensis Duham.
The berries are made into a sweetmeat.
A. menziesii Pursh. MADRONA.
Pacific Coast of North America.
The berries resemble Morello cherries.
When ripe they are quite ornamental and are said sometimes to be
A. unedo Linn. ARBUTE. CANE APPLES. STRAWBERRY TREE.
Theophrastus says the tree produces an
edible fruit; Pliny, that it is not worth eating. Sir J. E. Smith describes
the fruit as uneatable in Ireland, but W. Wilson says he can testify from
repeated experience that the ripe fruit is really very palatable; In Spain,
a sugar and a sherbet are obtained from it.
Archangelica (Angelica) atropurpurea Hoffm. Umbelliferae. GREAT
This plant is found from New England to Pennsylvania,
Wisconsin, and northward. Stillel says the stems are sometimes
candied. The root is used in domestic medicines as an aromatic and
A. gmelini DC. ANGELICA.
This species is used for culinary purposes by the
Russians in Kamchatka. The root, dug in the autumn of the first year,
is used in medicine as an aromatic tonic and possesses the taste and
smell of the seeds.
A. officinalis (archangelica) Hoffm. ANGELICA. ARCHANGEL.
Europe, Siberia and Himalayan regions.
This plant is a native of the
north of Europe and is found in the high, mountainous regions in
south Europe, as in Switzerland and among the Pyrenees. It is also
found in Alaska. Angelica is cultivated in various parts of Europe and is
occasionally grown in American gardens. The whole plant has a
fragrant odor and aromatic properties. Angelica is held in great
estimation in Lapland, where the natives strip the stem of leaves, and
the soft, internal part, after the outer skin has been pulled off, is eaten
raw like an apple or turnip. In Kamchatka, the roots are distilled and a
kind of spirit is made from them, and on the islands of Alaska, where it
is abundant and called wild parsnip, it is stated by Dall to be edible.
Angelica has been in cultivation in England since 1568. The leaf-stalks
were formerly blanched and eaten like celery. The plant is in request for
the use of confectioners, who make an excellent sweetmeat with the
tender stems, stalks, and ribs of the leaves candied with sugar. The
seeds enter into the composition of many liquors. In the north of
Europe, the leaves and stalks are still used as a vegetable.
The medicinal properties of the root were highly prized in the Middle
Ages. In Pomet, we read that the seed is much used to make angelica
comfits as well as the root for medicine. Bryant deems it the best
aromatic that Europe produces. This plant must be a native of northern
Europe, for there are no references to it in the ancient authors of Greece
and Rome, nor is it mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth
century. By Fuchsius, 1542, and succeeding authors it receives proper
attention. The German name, Heilige Geist Wurz, implies the estimation
in which it was held and offers a clue to the origin of the word Angelica,
or angel plant, which occurs in so many languages, as in English,
Spanish, Portugese, and Italian, becoming Angelique and
Archangelique in French, and Angelickwurz in German. Other names of
like import are the modern Engelwurz in Germany, Engelkruid in
Flanders and Engelwortel in Holland.
The various figures given by herbalists show the same type of plant, the
principal differences to be noted being in the size of the root. Pena and
Lobel, 1570, note a smaller variety as cultivated in England, Belgium,
and France, and Gesner is quoted by Camerarius as having seen roots
of three pounds weight. Bauhin, 1623, says the roots vary, the Swissgrown
being thick, those of Bohemia smaller and blacker.
Garden angelica is noticed amongst American garden medicinal herbs
by McMahon, 1806, and the seed is still sold by our seedsmen.
Arctium majus (lappa) Bernh. Compositae. BEGGAR'S BUTTONS.
BURDOCK. CLOTBUR. CUCKOLD. GOBO. HARLOCK.
Europe and Asia and occurring as a weed in the United States.
Japan, burdock is said to be cultivated as a vegetable. Gerarde says
"the staike of the clotburre before the burres come forth, the rinde peelld
off, being eaten raw with salt and pepper, or boyled in the broth of fat
meate, is pleasant to be eaten. Kalm, in his Travels in North America,"
writing of Ticonderoga, N. Y., says: "and the governor told me that its
tender shoots are eaten in spring as radishes, after the exterior part is
taken off." In Japan, says Johns, the tender stalks are eaten as an
asparagus, and its roots are said to be edible. Penhallow says the
Japanese cultivate the root, but as an article of food it is tasteless, hard
Arctostaphylos alpina Spreng. Ericaceae. ALPINE BEARBERRY.
Arctic regions and mountain summits farther south.
The berries are
eaten in Lapland but are a mawkish food, according to Linnaeus.
Richardson says there are two varieties, that both are eaten in the
autumn and, though not equal to some of the other native fruits, are
not unpleasant. They are called amprick by the Russians at the mouth
of the Obi.
A. glauca Lindl. MANZANITA.
The fruit grows in clusters, is first white, then red and finally
black. This berry is regarded as eatable but is dry and of little flavor.
A. tomentosa Lindl. MANZANITA
The red berries are used by the Spanish
inhabitants of Texas to make a cooling, subacid drink. The fruit is used
when not quite ripe as a tart apple. Dried and made into bread and
baked in the sun, the fruit is relished by the Indians.
A. uva-ursi Spreng. BEARBERRY. BEAR'S GRAPE. BRAWLINS.
CREASHAK. MOUNTAIN BOX.
North America and Arctic regions.
The Chinook Indians mix its dried
leaves with tobacco. It is used for the same purpose by the Crees who
call it tchakoshe-pukk; by the Chippewaians, who name it kleh; and by
the Eskimos north of Churchill, by whom it is termed at-tung-a-wi-at. It
is the iss-salth of the Chinooks. Its dry, farinaceous berry is utterly
Ardisia coriacea Sw. Myrsineae. BEEF-WOOD.
According to Sloane, the drupes are eaten in Jamaica and
are accounted a pleasant dessert.
A. esculenta Pav.
The berries are esculent.
Areca catechu Linn. Palmae. ARECA NUT. BETEL NUT. CATECHU.
This handsome palm is cultivated throughout the Indian
Archipelago, in Ceylon and the west side of India for the sake of its seed
which is known under the names areca nut, pinang and betel nut; the
nut is about the size of a nutmeg. These nuts are consumed, when dry,
in great quantity, a small portion being separated, put into a leaf of
piper-betle over which a little quick-lime is laid, then rolled up and
chewed altogether. It tinges the saliva red and stains the teeth. Whole
shiploads of this nut, so universally in use among the Eastern natives,
are exported annually from Sumatra, Malacca, Siam and Cochin China.
The heart of the leaves, according to Seemann, is eaten as a salad and
has not a bad flavor as Blanco writes.
A. glandiformis Lam.
In Cochin China the leaves are chewed with the betel nut.
A. laxa Buch.-Ham.
The nuts of this plant are used instead of the betel
nut by the convicts confined on, Andaman Islands.
Arenaria peploides Linn. Caryophylleae. SEA CHICKWEED.
North temperate and Arctic regions.
In Iceland, the plant is fermented
and in that state used as food, like sauerkraut; the plant also forms a
wholesome vegetable when boiled5 and is used for a pickle.
Arenga saccharifera Labill. Palmae. ARENG PALM.
Tropical eastern Asia.
This palm has been called the most useful of all
palms. Griffith says, the young albumen preserved in sugar forms one
of the well-known preserves of the Straits. Brandis says, the heart of the
stem contains large quantities of sago, and the cut flower-stalks yield a
sugary sap of which sugar and palm-wine are made. Graham says, at
Bombay this palm affords tolerably good sago and the sap, palm-wine
and sugar. Seemann says, the bud, or cabbage, is eaten. The sap, of
which some three quarts a day are collected, furnishes toddy and from
this toddy, jaggery sugar is prepared. The seed, freed from its noxious
covering, is made into a sweetmeat by the Chinese. From the pith, a
species of sago is prepared which, however, has a peculiar flavor.
Argania sideroxylon Roem. et Schult. Sapotaceae. ARGAN TREE.
From the seeds, the natives extract an oil that is used for
cooking and lighting. When ripe, the fruit, which is an egg-shaped
drupe, falls from the trees and the goats then enter into competition
with their masters for a share in the harvest. The goats, however,
swallow the fruit only for the sake of the subacid rind and, being
unable to digest the hard seeds, eject them during the process of
rumination, when they are gathered and added to the general store for
Arisaema atrorubens Blume. Aroideae (Araceae). DRAGON ROOT.
JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT. INDIAN TURNIP.
Cutler says, the shredded roots and berries are said to
have been boiled by the Indians with their venison. Bigelow says, the
starch of the root is delicate and nutritious. It must, however, be
obtained from the root by boiling in order that the heat may destroy the
A. costatum Mart.
This is said by Ellis to be a large aroid, called ape in Tahiti,
which is frequently planted in dry ground. It is considered inferior to
A. curvatum Kunth.
The Lepchas of India prepare a food called tong from the
tuberous root. The roots are buried in masses until acetous
fermentation sets in and are then dug, washed and cooked, by which
means their poisonous properties are in part dispersed, but not
entirely, as violent illness sometimes follows a hearty meal of tong.
A. tortuosum Schott.
The root is considered esculent by the mountaineers of
Arisarum vulgare Targ. Aroideae (Araceae).
In north Africa, the roots are much used in,
seasons of scarcity. The root, which is not as large as our ordinary
walnut, contains an acid juice, which makes it quite uneatable in the
natural state. This is, however, removed by repeated washings and the
residue is innoxious and nutritive.
Aristotelia macqui L'Herit. Tiliaceae (Elaeocarpaceae).
A large shrub called in Chile, maqui.
The berries, though small, have
the pleasant taste of bilberries and are largely consumed in Chile.
A. racemosa Hook.
The natives eat the berries.
Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancr. Umbelliferae. ARRACACHA.
Northern South America.
This plant has been cultivated and used as a
food from early times in the cooler mountainous districts of northern
South America, where the roots form a staple diet of the inhabitants.
The root is not unlike a parsnip in shape but more blunt; it is tender
when boiled and nutritious, with a flavor between the parsnip and a
roasted chestnut. A fecula, analogous to arrowroot, is obtained from it
by rasping in, water. Arracacha yields, according to Boussingault,
about 16 tons per acre. The plant is also found in the mountain regions
of Central America. The roots are nutritious and palatable and there are
yellow, purple and pale varieties. Attempts to naturalize this plant in
field culture in Europe have been unsuccessful. It was introduced into
Europe in 1829 and again, in 1846, but trials in England, France and
Switzerland were unsuccessful5 in obtaining eatable roots. It was
grown near New York in 1825 4 and at Baltimore in 1828 or 1829 but
was found to be worthless. Lately introduced into India, it is now fairly
established there and Morris considers it a most valuable plant-food,
becoming more palatable and desirable the longer it is used. It is
generally cultivated in Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador, and in
the temperate regions of these countries, Arracacha is preferred to the
potato. The first account which reached Europe concerning this plant
was published in the Annals of Botany in 1805. It was, however,
mentioned in a few words by Alcedo, 1789.
Artemisia abrotanum Linn. Compositae. OLD MAN.
Europe and temperate Asia.
This artemisia forms an ingredient, says
Lindley, in some continental beers.
A. absinthium Linn. ABSINTHE. WORMWOOD.
Cultivated in Europe and in England in cottage gardens on a large
Bridge-man, 1832, is the first writer on American gardening who
mentions absinthe but now its seeds are cataloged for sale by all our
larger dealers. It is classed among medicinal herbs but is largely used
in France to flavor the cordial, absinthe, and in America in
compounding bitters. The seed is used by the rectifiers of spirits and
the plant is largely cultivated in some districts of England for this
purpose. It is said occasionally to form an ingredient of sauces in
A. dracunculus Linn. TARRAGON.
East Europe, the Orient and Himalayan regions.
Tarragon was brought
to Italy, probably from the shores of the Black Sea, in recent times. The
first mention on record is by Simon Seth, in the middle of the twelfth
century, but it appears to have been scarcely known as a condiment
until the sixteenth century. It was brought to England in or about
1548. The flowers, as Vilmorin says, are always barren, so that the
plant can be propagated only by division. Tarragon culture is
mentioned by the botanists of the sixteenth century and in England by
Gerarde, 1597, and by succeeding authors on gardening. Rauwolf,
1573-75, found it in the gardens of Tripoli. In America, it is mentioned
by McMahon, 1806. Its roots are now included in our leading seed
catalogs. Tarragon has a fragrant smell and an aromatic taste for which
it is greatly esteemed by the French. In Persia, it has long been
customary to use the leaves to create an appetite. Together with the
young tips, the leaves are put in salads, in pickles and in vinegar for a
fish sauce. They are also eaten with beefsteaks, served with
horseradish. Tarragon vinegar, says Mclntosh, is much esteemed.
A. maritima Linn. WORM-SEED.
Caucasian region, Siberia and Europe.
It is a bitter tonic and aromatic.
It was formerly used to make a conserve with sugar.
A. mutellina Vill. ALPINE WORMWOOD.
The plant is used on the continent in the preparation of Eau
d'absinthe, which is in request amongst epicures.
A. spicata Wulf. SPIKED WORMWOOD.
The plant is used on the continent in the preparation of Eau
A. vulgaris Linn. FELLON-HERB. MUGWORT.
Northern temperate regions.
Mugwort was employed, says Johnson, to
a great extent for flavoring beer before the introduction of the hop. It is
still used in England to flavor the home-made beer of the cottagers. On
the continent, it is occasionally employed as an aromatic, culinary herb.
Artocarpus brasiliensis Gomez. Urticaceae (Moraceae). JACK.
Professor Hartt says the jack is cultivated in the province of
Bahia and to the north, at Sao Matheus and occasionally as far south
as Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The fruit is of immense size, being sometimes
a foot and a half in the longer diameter. The seeds are largely used as
food and the pulp is nutritious. In some parts, a kind of farina is
prepared from the seeds, but this use is by no means general.
A. hirsuta Lam.
The fruit is the size of a large orange. The pulpy substance
is much relished by the natives, being almost as good as the fruit of the
A. incisa Linn. f. BREADFRUIT.
This most useful tree is nowhere found growing wild but is now
extensively cultivated in warm regions.
It is first described by the writer
of Mendana's Voyage to the Marquesas Islands, 1595. It has been
distributed from the Moluccas, by way of Celebes and New Guinea,
throughout all the islands of the Pacific Ocean to Tahiti. Breadfruit is
also naturalized in, the Isle of France, in tropical Americal and bears
fruit in Ceylon and Burma. It is more especially an object of care and
cultivation in the Marquesas and the Friendly and Society Islands. The
tree was conveyed to the Isle of France from Luzon in the Philippines by
Sonnerat. In 1792, from Tahiti and Timor, Capt. Bligh, who was
commissioned by the British Government for this purpose, took a store
of plants and in 1793 landed 333 breadfruit trees at St. Vincent and
347 at Port Royal, Jamaica. In the cultivated breadfruit, the seeds are
almost always abortive, leaving their places empty which shows that its
cultivation goes back to a remote antiquity. This seedlessness does not
hold true, however, of all varieties, of which there are many. Chamisso
describes a variety in the Mariana Islands with small fruit containing
seeds which are frequently perfect. Sonnerat found in the Philippines a
breadfruit, which he considered as wild, which bears ripe seeds of a
considerable size. In Tahiti, there are eight varieties without seeds and
one variety with seeds which is inferior to the others. Nine varieties are
credited by Wilkes to the Fiji Islands and twenty to the Samoan.
Captain Cook, at Tahiti, in 1769, describes the fruit as about the size
and shape of a child's head, with the surface reticulated not much
unlike a truffle, covered with a thin skin and having a core about as big
as the handle of a small knife.
The eatable part of breadfruit lies between the skin and the core and is
as white as snow and somewhat of the consistence of new bread. It
must be roasted before it is eaten. Its taste is insipid, with a slight
sweetness, somewhat resembling that of the crumb of wheaten bread
mixed with a Jerusalem artichoke. Wilkes says the best varieties when
baked or roasted are not unlike a good custard pudding. If the
breadfruit is to be preserved, it is scraped from the rind and buried in a
pit where it is allowed to ferment, when it subsides into a mass
somewhat of the consistency of new cheese. These pits when opened
emit a nauseous, fetid, sour odor, and the color of the contents is a
greenish-yellow. In this state it is called mandraiuta, or native bread, of
which several kinds are distinguished. It is said that it will keep several
years and is cooked with cocoanut milk, in which state it forms an
agreeable and nutritious food. This tree affords one of the most
generous sources of nutriment that the world possesses. According to
Poster, twenty-seven breadfruit trees, which would cover an English
acre with their shade, are sufficient for the support of from ten to twelve
people during the eight months of fruit-bearing. Breadfruit is called in
Tahiti maiore, in Hawaii aeiore.
A. integrifolia Linn. f. JACK.
On account of its excellent fruit, this tree is a special object
of cultivation on the two Indian peninsulas, in Cochin China and
southern China. It has only recently been introduced into the islands of
the Pacific Ocean, as well as upon the island of Mauritius, the Antilles
and the west coast of Africa. It is scarcely to be doubted that it occurs
here and there growing wild and that perhaps Ceylon and the
peninsula of Further India may be looked upon as its original native
land. The jack seems to be the Indian fruit described by Pliny, who
gives the name of the tree as pala, of the fruit, ariena; and to be the
chagui of Friar Jordanus, about 1330, whose "fruit is of such size that
one is enough for five persons." Firminger says the fruit of this tree is
perhaps about one of the largest in existence and is an ill-shapen,
unattractive-looking object. The interior is of a soft, fibrous consistency
with the edible portions scattered here and there, of about the size and
color of a small orange. It is considered delicious by those who can
manage to eat it, but it possesses the rich, spicy scent and flavor of the
melon to such a powerful degree as to be quite unbearable to persons
of a weak stomach, or to those not accustomed to it. There are two
varieties in India. Lunan says the thick, gelatinous covering which
envelopes the seeds, eaten either raw or fried, is delicious. The round
seeds, about half an inch in diameter, eaten roasted, have a very mealy
and agreeable taste. The fruit, says Brandis, is an important article of
food in Burma, southern India and Ceylon. The tree has a very strong
and disagreeable smell.
A. lakoocha Roxb.
Malay and East Indies.
The ill-shapen fruit, the size of an orange and of
an austere taste, is sometimes eaten. Firminger says also that he has
met with those who said they liked it, a fact which he could otherwise
have hardly credited. Brandis says the male flower-heads are pickled.
Arum Aroideae (Araceae).
The several species of arum possess a combination of extremely acrid
properties, with the presence of a large quantity of farina, which can be
separated from the poisonous ingredient by heat or water and in some
instances by merely drying. The arums form the most important plants
of the tropics. In a single Polynesian Island, Tahiti, the natives have
names for 33 arums. Taro, the general name, is grown in vast quantities
in the Fiji group on the margins of streams under a system of irrigation.
When the root is ripe, the greater part is cut off from the leaves and the
portion which is left attached to them is at once replanted. These roots
are prepared for use by boiling and are then pounded into a kind of
flour, which is preserved until wanted for use. Large quantities of taro
are also stored in pits where it becomes solid and is afterwards used by
the natives as mandrai. In former times, the common spotted arum
furnished food to the English during the periods of scarcity. It seems
impossible to determine in all cases to which species of arum travelers
refer in recording the use of this genera of plants. The information given
under the heading of the species will show the generality of their use
and their importance.
A. dioscoridis Sibth. & Sm.
East Mediterranean countries.
Theophrastus mentions that the roots
and leaves of this plant, steeped in vinegar, were eaten in ancient
Greece. The roots, as Pickering remarks, are cooked and eaten in the
A. italicum Mill. ITALIAN ARUM.
This arum is described by Dioscorides, who
says its root is eaten either raw or cooked. Westward, the cooked root is
further mentioned by Dioscorides as mixed with honey by the Balearic
islanders and made into cakes. This plant was in cultivation for seven
years in Guernsey for the purpose of making arrow-root from its conns.
A. maculatum Linn. ADAM-AND-EVE. BOBBINS. CUCKOO PINT.
LORDS-AND-LADIES. STARCH-ROOT. WAKE ROBIN.
The thick and tuberous root, while fresh, is extremely acrid,
but by heat its injurious qualities are destroyed, and in the isle of
Portland the plant was extensively used in the preparation of an arrowroot.
According to Sprengel,4 its roots are cooked and eaten in Albania,
and in Slavonia it is made into a kind of bread. The leaves, even of this
acrid plant, are said by Pallas 5 to be eaten by the Greeks of Crimea.
"Dioscorides showeth that the leaves also are prescribed to be eaten and
that they must be eaten after they be dried and boy led."
Arundinaria japonica Sieb. & Zucc. Gramineae. CANE.
When the young shoots appear in early summer, they
are carefully gathered and, under the name of take-no-ko, are used for
food as we would employ young asparagus; though by no means so
tender as the latter, they make a very desirable dish.
A. macrosperma Michx. LARGE CANE.
This is the species of cane which forms cane brakes in
Virginia, Kentucky and southward. Flint, in his Western States, says: "It
produces an abundant crop of seed with heads very like those of broom
corn. The seeds are farinaceous and are said to be not much inferior to
wheat, for which the Indians and occasionally the first settlers