Edible Plant Species

Cadaba farinosa Forsk. Capparideae.
A shrub of tropical Africa and Arabia.
Spinach is made from the leaves.

Caesalpinia pulcherrima Sw. Leguminosae. PEACOCK FLOWER. PRIDE OF BARBADOS.
Cosmopolitan tropics.
The green seeds are eaten raw and have the taste of peas.

East Indies.
The pigeon pea is a perennial shrub, though treated generally as an annual when in cultivation. It is now naturalized in the West Indies, in tropical America and in Africa. The variety Bicolor grows from three to six feet high and is called the Congo pea in Jamaica. The variety Flavus grows from five to ten feet high and is called in Jamaica no-eye pea, pigeon pea and Angola pea6 Dr. MacFayden says there are few tropical plants so valuable. Lunan says the pea when young and properly cooked is very little inferior as a green vegetable to English peas and when old is an excellent ingredient in soups. Berianger says at Martinique there are several varieties greatly used, and that the seeds both fresh and dried are delicious. In Egypt, on the richest soil, says Mueller, 4000 pounds of peas have been produced to the acre, and the plant lasts for three years, growing 15 feet tall. This variety is said by Pickering to be native of equatorial Africa. In India, the seeds of the two varieties are much esteemed, ranking, with the natives, third amongst their leguminous seeds. Elliott says the pulse when split is in great and general esteem and forms the most generally used article of diet among all classes in India. At Zanzibar, the seeds are a principal article of diet. It is both cultivated and wild all over India as well as in all parts of tropical Africa. It certainly is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world, a fact attested by its presence in ancient tombs. Schweinfurth states that it is found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty (2200- 2400 B. C.)

Cakile maritima Scop. Cruciferae. SEA ROCKET.
Europe, northern Africa and North America.
Kalm says the sea rocket furnishes a root in Canada which is pounded, mixed with flour and eaten, when there is a scarcity of bread.

Caladium bicolor Vent. Aroideae (Araceae).
South America.
The corms are eaten roasted or boiled. The leaves are eaten, boiled as a vegetable, in the West Indies.

Calamus rotang Linn. Palmae. RATTAN CANE.
East Indies.
Thunberg saw the fruit of the rattan exposed for sale in Batavia. When ripe this fruit is roundish, as large as a hazelnut and is covered with small, shining scales, laid like shingles, one upon the other. The natives generally suck out the subacid pulp which surrounds the kernel by way of quenching their thirst. Sometimes the fruit is pickled with salt and eaten at tea-time. This palm furnishes rattan canes.

Calathea allouia Lindl. Scitamineae (Marantaceae).
This species is cultivated in the West Indies and, according to Lindley, furnishes one of the arrowroots of commerce.

Calendula officinalis Linn. Compositae. GOLDINS GOLDS. POT MARIGOLD.
Southern Europe.
This marigold was cultivated in England prior to 1573. The petals of the flowers are occasionally used in broths and soups in Britain and Holland and are also used for coloring butter. In 1806, it was included in McMahon's list of aromatic, pot and sweet herbs of American gardens. There are a number of ornamental varieties, and the species is to be found in many of our country gardens. The plant is described in nearly all of the early herbals and is mentioned by Albertus Magnus in the thirteenth century.

Calla palustris Linn. Aroideae (Araceae). WATER ARUM. WATER DRAGON.
Europe, Northern Asia and North America.
The rootstocks of this plant yield eatable starch, prepared by drying and grinding them and then heating the powder until the acrid properties are dissipated.

Callicarpa lanata Linn. Verbenaceae.
East Indies.
The bark has a peculiar, subaromatic and slightly bitter taste and is chewed by the Cinghalese when they cannot obtain betel leaves.

Calligonum pallasia L'Herit. Polygonaceae.
Caspian region, Russia and Siberia.
The roots when pounded are said to furnish a mucilaginous, edible substance resembling gum tragacanth.

C. polygonoides Linn.
Armenia, Persia and northwestern India.
The abortive flowers, which fall in great numbers, are, in the south Punjab and sometimes in Sind, swept up, made into bread, or cooked with ghee and eaten.

Callirhoe involucrata A. Gray. Malvaceae. POPPY MALLOW.
Northwestern America.
The large, tapering root of this plant is said to be edible. It is an inmate of the flower garden in France.

C. pedata A. Gray. PIMPLE MALLOW.
Northwestern America.
The roots of this species resemble those of a parsnip and are used as food by the Indians of Nebraska and Idaho. In France it is grown in flower gardens.

Calluna vulgaris Salisb. Ericaceae. HEATH.
Europe and North America.
The Celtic tribes had a method of preparing an intoxicating drink from a decoction of heath. This beverage, mixed with wild honey, was their common drink at feasts. In the Hebrides, says Johnson, a kind of beer is formed by fermenting a mixture of two parts of heath tops and one of malt. The Picts had a mode of preparing beer or wine from the flowers of the heath.

Calochortus elegans Pursh. Liliaceae. STAR TULIP.
Pacific northwest of America.
The root of this plant is eaten by the Indians.

Western United States.
This plant has a small, bulbous root about the size of a walnut, very palatable and nutritious and much used by the Indian tribes of Utah as an article of food. The Mormons during their first years in Utah consumed the root in large quantities.

Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Guttiferae. ALEXANDRIAN LAUREL. POONAY-OIL PLANT.
Old world tropics.
The fruit when ripe is red and sweet and is eaten by the natives. An oil is expressed from it and is used in lamps.

Calotropis gigantea Ait. Asclepiadeae. BOW-STRING HEMP.
East India.
According to Twemlow, an intoxicating liquor called bar is obtained from the plant by the Hill People about Mahableshwur. According to Royle, it yields a kind of manna.

Caltha palustris Linn. Ranunculaceae. COWSLIP. MARSH MARIGOLD. MEADOW BRIGHT.
Of northern climates.
This well-known plant, says Gray, is used as a potherb in spring when coming into flower, under the name of cowslip. In the Southern States, the flower-buds are pickled for use as a substitute for capers.

Calycanthus floridus Linn. Calycanthaceae. CAROLINA ALLSPICE.
North America.
The aromatic bark is said to be used as a substitute for cinnamon.

Calyptranthes aromatica St. Hil. Myrtaceae.
South Brazil.
Mueller says the flower-buds can be used as cloves; the berries, as allspice.

C. obscura DC.
he fruit is sold in Rio Janeiro as an aromatic and astringent.

C. paniculata Ruiz & Pav.
The fruit is used as a substitute for cloves.

C. schiediana Berg.
In Mexico, the fruit is used as cloves.

Calystegia sepium R. Br. Convolvulaceae. BINDWEED.
Temperate climates.
It has edible stalks which are eaten by the Hindus. The roots are said to be boiled and eaten by the Chinese, who manage, says Smith, to cook and digest almost every root or tuber in spite of the warnings of botanists and chemists.

C. soldanella R. Br. SEA BINDWEED.
Temperate climates.
The tender stalks of the sea bindweed are pickled. The young shoots, says Johnson, were gathered formerly by the people on the southern coasts of England and pickled as a substitute for samphire.

Camassia esculenta Lindl. Liliaceae. COMMON CAMASS. KAMOSH. QUAMASH.
Northwestern America.
The root forms the greater part of the vegetable food of the Indians on the northwest coast of America and Vancouver Island and is called kamosh or quamash. This bulbous root is said to be of delicious flavor and highly nutritious, but Lewis says it causes bowel complaints if eaten in quantity. This plant covers many plains and is dug by the women and stored for eating, roasted or boiled. The bulbs, when boiled in water, yield a very good molasses, which is much prized and is used on festival occasions by various tribes of Indians. In France, it is an inmate of the flower garden.

Europe and temperate Asia.
This plant occurs in northeastern America as a noxious weed in flax fields, having been introduced from Europe. It was regularly cultivated in the mediaeval ages in Germany and Russia and is now cultivated in Flanders. The stem yields a fiber, but the stalks seem to be used only in broom making. The seeds yield an oil which is used for culinary and other purposes. In 1854, the seeds of this plant were distributed from the United States Patent Office. It was called in Britain gold-of-pleasure even in the time of Gerarde. The seeds are sometimes imported into England under the name dodder seed, but they have no relation to the true dodder which is a far different plant.

Camellia sasanqua Thunb. Ternstroemiaceae (Theaceae). TEAOIL PLANT.
Japan and China.
This plant was introduced from China to England in 1811. It yields a nut from which an oil is expressed in China, equal, it is said, to olive oil. In Japan the dried leaves are mixed with tea to give it a grateful odor.

C. thea Link. TEA.
This is the species to which the cultivated varieties of tea are all referred. In its various forms it is now found in China and Japan, in the mountains that separate China from the Burmese territories, especially in upper Assam, in Nepal, in the islands of Bourbon, Java, St. Helena and Madeira, in Brazil and experimentally in the United States. The first mention of tea seems to have been by Giovanni Pietro Maffei in his Historiae Indicae, 1589, from which it appears that it was then called by the Chinese chia. Giovanni Botero in his Delia Cause della grandezza...delta citta, 1589, says the Chinese have an herb from which they extract a delicate juice, which they use instead of wine. In 1615, an Englishman in Japan, in the employment of the East India Company, sent to a brother official at Macao for a "pot of the best chaw," and this is supposed to be the earliest known mention by an Englishman. Adam Olearius describes the use of tea in Persia in 1633, and says-his book being published in 164 -"this herb is now so well known in most parts of Europe, where many persons of quality use it with good success." In 1638, Mandelslo visited Japan and about this time wrote of the tsia or tea of Japan.

Prior to 1657, tea was occasionally sold in England at prices ranging from $30 to $50 a pound. In 1661, Mr. Pepys, secretary of the British Admiralty, speaks of "tea (a China drink) of which I had never drank before," and in 1664, the Dutch India Company presented two pounds and two ounces to the King of England as a rare and valuable offering and in 1667 this company imported 100 pounds. In 1725, there were imported into England 370,323 pounds; in 1775, the quantity had increased to 5,648,188 pounds. In 1863, upwards of 136,000,000 pounds were imported of which 85,206,779 pounds were entered for home consumption. In 1863, the United States received 29,761,037 pounds and 72,077,951 pounds in 1880.

In 1810, the first tea plants were carried to Rio Janeiro, together with several hundred Chinese experienced in its culture. The government trials do not seem to have resulted favorably but later, the business being taken up by individuals, its culture seems to be meeting with success and the tea of Brazil, called by its Chinese name of cha, enters quite largely into domestic consumption. In 1848, Junius Smith, of South Carolina, imported a number of shrubs and planted them at Greenville. At about the same time some 32,000 plants were imported from China and distributed through the agency of the Patent Office. In 1878, the Department of Agriculture distributed 69,000 plants. In Louisiana, in 1870, a plantation of tea shrubs, three to four hundred in number, is said to have existed.

Campanula edulis Forsk. Campanulaceae. BELLFLOWER.
The root is thick, sapid and is eaten by children.

C. persicifolia Linn. PEACH BELLS.
Europe and north Asia.
This plant has been used as food in England but has long since fallen into disuse. In France it is called cloche and is grown as a flowering plant.

C. rapunculoides Linn. CREEPING BELLFLOWER.
Europe and temperate Asia.
This plant may be substituted in cultivation for rampion. It has long since fallen into disuse.

C. rapunculus Linn. RAMPION.
Europe, Orient, north Africa and northern Asia.
This biennial plant was formerly much cultivated in gardens for its roots as well as its leaves. Loudon says the latter are excellent, eaten raw as a salad or boiled as a spinach, and the root, which has the flavor of walnuts, is also eaten raw like a radish or mixed with salads, either raw or boiled and cold. It is much cultivated in France and Italy, says Johns.

Rampion is recorded in gardens by Pena and Lobel, 1570, and is figured by Tragus, 1552, Lobel, 1576, as well as by other writers of this period, as an improved root. In 1726, Townsend says it is to be found in only few English gardens; and Bryant, 1783, says it is much cultivated in France but in England is now little regarded. It is recorded in American gardens in 1806, 1819 and 1821. As late as 1877, an English writer says rampion is a desirable addition to winter salads.

Campomanesia aromatica Griseb. Myrtaceae. GUAVA STRAWBERRY.
Guiana and Cayenne.
At Martinique, where this shrub is cultivated, it is called guava strawberry, because the flavor of its delicate pulp reminds one of the Pine strawberry. The fruit is edible.

C. lineatifolia Ruiz & Pav.
This species furnishes edible fruit.

Canarina campanulata Linn. Campanulaceae.
Canary Islands.
The fleshy capsule, roots and young shoots are said to be edible."

Canarium album Raeusch. Burseraceae. CANARIUM
A tree native of China and Cochin China, Anam and the Philippines.
The fruit is pickled and used as olives.

This fine-looking tree is cultivated for the sake of its fruit which, in taste, is something like an almond. An oil is expressed from the seed which in Java is used in lamps and when fresh is mixed with food. Bread is also made from its nuts in the island of Celebes. In Ceylon, the nut is called wild almond by Europeans and is eaten.

C. edule Hook. f.
Tropical Africa.
This is the safu of the island of St. Thomas in the Gulf of Guinea, where its fruit is much esteemed. In taste, the fruit is bitter and astringent; it is usually roasted.

C. pimela Kon.
Cochin China, China and Java.
The black fruit is sometimes pickled.

C. sylvestre Gaertn.
The plant bears nuts with edible kernels.

Canavalia ensiformis DC. Leguminosae. HORSE BEAN. OVERLOOK. SWORD BEAN.
Tropical Africa.
This climbing plant is commonly cultivated about Bombay. The half-grown pods are eaten. It is cultivated in the Peninsula for its esculent pods; in Burma to a small extent, where its young pods are eaten; and also in the Philippines. The plant is common in woods in the East Indies, tropical Africa, Mexico, Brazil and the West Indies. It is called overlook by the negroes of Jamaica.6 Elliott7 says it is found only in a cultivated state and is probably the domesticated form of C. virosa. Firminger says it is a native vegetable of India, the pod large, flat, sword-shaped, fully nine inches long, and more than an inch and a quarter wide. Though rather coarse-looking, yet when sliced and boiled, is exceedingly tender and little, if any, inferior to the French bean. Roxburgh describes three varieties: flowers and seeds red; flowers white and seeds red; flowers and large seed white. This last variety is considered the best and is used on the tables of Europeans as well as by the natives of Sylhet where it is indigenous. Drury says it is a common plant in hedges and thickets and in cultivation. It is called in India mukhun seen.

Canella alba Murr. Canellaceae. WILD CINNAMON.
West Indies.
The bark is employed by the negroes as a condiment and has. some reputation as an antiscorbutic.

Canna achiras Gill. Scitamineae (Cannaceae). CANNA.
South Africa.
This plant is said to furnish tubers used as food in Peru and Chile. It is one of the species cultivated in the West Indies for the manufacture of the arrowroot known as tous les mois according to Balfour.

C. coccinea Mill. INDIAN SHOT.
East Indies.
This plant is said by Mueller and Balfour to yield the tous les mois of the West Indies.

C. edulis Ker-Gawl.
American tropics.
This plant is cultivated in the islands of St. Christopher, Trinidad and probably elsewhere. The tubers are said to be quite large and when rasped to a pulp furnish, by washing and straining, one of the classes of arrowroot known as tous les mois. It is one of the hardiest of arrowroot plants. It is the adeira or ackiras of Peru.

C. glauca Linn.
Mexico and West Indies.
This is one of the West Indian arrowroot cannas.

Cannabis sativa Linn. Urticaceae (Cannabidaceae) . FIMBLE. GALLOW GRASS. HEMP.
Caspian, central Asia and northwestern Himalayas.
Hemp is spontaneous in the north of India and in Siberia. It has also been found wild in the Caucasus and in the north of China. Its native country is probably the region of the Caspian. Hemp was cultivated by the Celts. The Scythians, according to Herodotus, cultivated it. The Hebrews and the ancient Egyptians did not know it, for no mention is made of it in the sacred books and it does not appear in the envelopes of the mummies. Its culture is ancient throughout the southern provinces of India as a textile plant and for the stimulating properties of the leaves, flowers and seeds. Dioscorides alludes to the strength of the ropes made from its fibre and the use of the seeds in medicine. Galen refers to it medicinally. It was known in China as early as A. D. 220. It was introduced into the United States before 1639, as Wm. Wood n mentions it.

Hempseed was served fried for dessert by the ancients. In Russia, Poland and neighboring countries, the peasants are extremely fond of parched hempseed and it is eaten even by the nobility. The oil expressed from the seed is much used as food during the time of the fasts in the Volga region. The plant is cultivated by the Hottentots for the purpose of smoking and it is used in like manner by the negroes of Brazil. In the East, hemp is grown largely for the sake of the churras, or resin, which possesses intoxicating properties. The Arabs smoke the sun-dried leaf mixed with tobacco in huge pipes, while the Africans smoke the hemp alone. For fibre purposes and for seed, the plant is largely grown in Russia and North America.

Capparis aphylla Roth. Capparideae. CAPER. KUREEL.
Northern Africa, Arabia and East Indies.
In India, the bud of this plant is eaten as a potherb, and the fruit is largely consumed by the natives, both green and ripe and is formed into a pickle. In Sind, the flowerbuds are used as a pickle, and the unripe fruit is cooked and eaten. Both the ripe and unripe fruit, prepared into a bitter-tasting pickle, is exported into Hindustan. Its fruit, before ripening, is cooked and eaten by the Banians of Arabia. The African species is described by Barth as forming one of the characteristic features in the vegetation of Africa from the desert to the Niger, the dried berries constituting an important article of food, while the roots when burned yield no small quantity of salt.

C. horrida Linn. f. CAPER.
Tropical Asia and Malays.
In the southern Punjab and Sind, the fruit is pickled.

C. spinosa Linn. CAPER.
Mediterranean regions, East Indies and Orient.
This species furnishes buds which are substituted for the capers of commerce. It is used as a caper. The preserved buds have received wide distribution as a vegetable. The caper was known to the ancient Greeks, and the renowned Phryne, at the first period of her residence in Athens, was a dealer in capers. The Greeks of the Crimea, according to Pallas, eat the sprouts, which resemble those of asparagus, as well as the bud, shoot, and, in short, every eatable part of the shrub. Wilkinson states that the fruit of the Egyptian caper, or lussef, is very large, like a small cucumber, about two and a half inches long and is eaten by the Arabs. According to Ruellius, Aristotle and Theophrastus describe the plant as not cultivated in gardens, but in his time, 1536, it was in the gardens of France. In Sind and the Punjab, the fruit is pickled and eaten. It is now cultivated in the south of Europe for the flower-buds, which furnish the capers of commerce. About 1755, capers were imported into South Carolina by Henry Laurens. They were raised successfully for two years in Louisiana, before 1854, but the plants afterwards perished by frost.

C. tomentosa Lam. KOWANGEE.
This is the kowangee of tropical Africa.
In famines at Madi, spinach is made from its leaves.

Capraria biflora Linn. Scrophularineae. GOAT-WEED. JAMAICA TEA. SMART WEED. WEST INDIA TEA.
Tropical America.
Lunan says the leaves not only resemble those of tea but make an equally agreeable decoction. Titford says an infusion of them is a very good beverage.

Capsella bursa-pastoris Medic. Cruciferae. MOTHER'S HEART. SHEPHERD'S PURSE.
Temperate regions.
One of the commonest of weeds, this plant has accompanied Europeans in all their navigations and established itself wherever they have settled to till the soil. Johns says it was formerly used as a potherb. Johnson says, as improved by cultivation, "it is used in America as a green vegetable, being largely raised about Philadelphia for sale in the markets." Darlington, the botanist, who lived near Philadelphia, calls it "a worthless little intruder from Europe," and we are disposed to believe that the statement of its culture is one of the errors which are copied from book to book. In China, it is collected by the poor and largely eaten as food.

Capsicum. Solanaceae.
Tropical America.
Ancient Sanscrit or Chinese names for the genus are not known. The first mention that is on record is by Peter Martyr in his epistle dated Sept. 1493, when he says Columbus brought home with him "pepper more pungent than that from Caucasus." In his Decades of the Ocean he says: "There are innumerable Kyndes of Ages, the varietie whereof, is known by theyr leaves and flowers. One kind of these, is called guanaguax, this is white both within and without. Another named guaraguei is of violet colour without and white within. Squi are whyte within and without. Tunna is altogether of violet colours. Hobos is yelowe both of skynne and inner substance. There is an other named atibunicix, the skynne of this is of violet coloure and the substance white. Aniguamar hath his skynne also of violet coloure and is white within. Guaccaracca hath a white skynne and the substance of violet colour. There are many other, which are not yet brought to us." This variability indicates an antiquity of cultivation.

Veytia says the Olmecs raised chilis before the time of the Toltecs. Sahagun mentions capsium more frequently than any other herb among the edible dishes of the Aztecs. Acosta says it is the principal sauce and the only spice of the Indians. Bancroft says it was eaten by the Nahuathan natives both green and dry, whole and ground. Gardlasso de la Vega speaks of it as an ancient vegetable in Peru, and one variety was especially valued by royalty. The earliest reference to this genus seems to be by Chanca, physician to the fleet of Columbus, in his second voyage, and occurs in a letter written in 1494 to the Chapter of Seville. Capsicum and its uses are more particularly described by Oviedo, who reached tropical America from Spain in 1514. Hans Stade, about 1550, mentions the capsicum of the continent of America as being of two kinds: "The one yellow, the other red, both, however, grow in like manner. When green it is as large as the haws that grow on hawthorns. It is a small shrub, about half a fathom high and has small leaves; it is full of peppers which burn the mouth." Lignon in his History of the Barbadoes, 1647 to 1653, describes two sorts in Barbados: "The one so like a child's corall, as not to be discerned at the distance of two paces, a crimson and scarlet mixt; the fruit about three inches long and shines more than the best pollisht corall. The other, of the same colour and glistening as much but shaped like a large button of a cloak; both of one and the same quality; both violently strong and growing on a little shrub no bigger than a gooseberry bush." Long says there are about 15 varieties of capsicum in Jamaica, which are found in most parts of the island. Those which are most commonly noticed are the Bell, Goat, Bonnett, Bird, Olive, Hen, Barbary, Finger and Cherry. Of these the Bell is esteemed most proper for pickling. Wafer, 1699, speaking of the Isthmus, says: "They have two sorts of pepper, the one called Bell-pepper, the other Bird-pepper, each sort growing on a weed or shrubby bush about a yard high. The Bird-pepper has the smaller leaf and is most esteemed by the Indians."

Garcilasso de la Vega in his Royal Commentaries, 1609, says the most common pepper in Peru is thick, somewhat long, and without a point. This is called rocot uchu, or thick pepper, to distinguish it from the next kind. They eat it green and before it assumes its ripe color, which is red. There are others yellow and others brown, though in Spain only the red kind has been seen. There is another kind the length of a geme, a little more or less, and the thickness of the little finger. These were considered a nobler kind and were reserved for the use of the royal family. Another kind of pepper is small and round, exactly like a cherry with its stalk. They call it chinchi uchu and it bears far more than the others. It is grown in small quantities and for that reason is the more highly esteemed. Molina says many species of the pimento, called by the Indians thapi, "are cultivated in Chili, among others the annual pimento which is there perennial, the berry pimento, and the pimento with a subligenous stalk." Capsicums were eaten in large quantities by the ancient inhabitants of tropical America, and the natives of Guiana now eat the fruit in such abundance as would not be credited by an European unless he were to see it. In Sonora and New Mexico, at the present time, they are universally grown, and the pods while green are eaten with various substances, under the name of chille verde, while the dishes prepared with the red pods are called chille colorom. Capsicum was brought to Spain by Columbus in 1493. It is mentioned in England in 1548 and was seen by Clusius in Moravia in 1585. Clusius asserts that the plant was brought to India by the Portuguese. Gerarde says these plants are brought from foreign countries, as Guinea, India and those parts, into Spain and Italy, whence we have received seed for our English gardens. There are many peppers, some of which it is more convenient to describe as species

Tropical regions.
Booth says this species was introduced into Europe by the Spaniards and that it was cultivated in England in 1548. The fruits are variable, some being yellow, others red and others black. The pods, according to London, are long or short, round or cherry-shaped. In lower Hungary, the variety now very largely cultivated for commercial purposes, has a spherical, scarlet fruit. It is cultivated in India, in America, and, indeed, almost everywhere in warm countries.

Tropical regions.
Booth says this species is indigenous to both the East and West Indies and has been grown in England since 1731. The pods are erect, roundish, egg-shaped, very pungent. It was probably early introduced into India as shown by the belief that it is native. It is used like other red peppers by the Mexicans who call it chipatane.

C. cerasiforme Mill. CHERRY PEPPER.
Its stem is 12 to 15 inches high; fruit erect, of a deep, rich, glossy scarlet when ripe; of intense piquancy. A variety occurs with larger, more conical and pendent pods, and there is also a variety with yellow fruit.

Tropical America.
This plant is considered by some botanists as a native of India, as it has constantly been found in a wild state in the Eastern Islands, but Rumphius argues its American origin from its being so constantly called Chile. It is the aji or uchu seen by Cieza de Leon in 1532-50, during his travels in Peru and even now is a favorite condiment with the Peruvian Indians. This pepper is cultivated in every part of India, in two varieties, the red and the yellow, and in Cochin China. In Ceylon there are three varieties, a red, a yellow and a black. It has been in English gardens since 1656. Its long, obtuse pods are very pungent and in their green and ripe state are used for pickling, for making Chile vinegar; the ripe berries are used for making cayenne pepper. Burr describes the fruit as quite small, cone-shaped, coral-red when ripe, and intensely acrid but says it will not succeed in open culture in the north.

C. minimum Roxb. CAYENNE PEPPER.
Philippine Islands.
This is said to be the cayenne pepper of India. Wight says this pepper is eaten by the natives of India but is not preferred. It grows also on the coast of Guinea and is recognized as a source of capsicum by the British Pharmacopoeia. It is intensely pungent.

Tropical regions.
This species is said by Booth to be the bonnet pepper of Jamaica. The fruits are very fleshy and have a depressed form like a Scotch bonnet. In lower Hungary, under the name paprika, the cultivation gives employment to some 2500 families. The fruit is red, some three and a half to five inches long, and three-quarters of an inch to an inch in diameter.

McMahon, 1806, says capsicums are in much estimation for culinary purposes and mentions the Large Heart-shaped as the best. He names also the Cherry, Bell and Long Podded. In 1826, Thorbum offers in his catalog five varieties, the Long or Cayenne, the Tomato-shaped or Squash, the Bell or Ox-heart, the Cherry and the Bird or West Indian. In 1881 he offers ten varieties.
In the varieties under present cultivation, we have distinct characters in the calyx of several of the groups and in the fruit being pendulous or erect. It is worthy of note that the pendulous varieties have a pendulous bloom as well as fruit, and the erect varieties have erect bloom. Some heavy fruits are erect, while some light fruits are pendulous. Another distinct character is the flavor of the fruit, as for instance all the sweet peppers have a like calyx, and a like color. While again there may seem at first to be considerable variability in the fruits even on the same plant, yet a more careful examination shows that this variability is more apparent than real and comes from a suppression or distortion of growth, all really being of a similar type.

This history of the botany of the groups can best be seen by the synonymy, which is founded upon figures given with the descriptions.

(a) Fruits pendulous.
This form seems to have been the first introduced and presents fruits of extreme pungency and is undoubtedly that described as brought to Europe by Columbus. It presents varieties with straight and recurved fruit and the fruit when ripe is often much contorted and wrinkled. Capsicum longum. DC. from Fingerhuth.

Siliquastrum tertium. Langer Indianischer pfeffer. Fuch. 733. 1542.
Siliquastrum minus. Fuch. 1. c. 732.
Indianischer pfeffer. Saliquastrum. Roeszl. 214. 1550.
Indianischer pfeffer. Trag. 928. 1552.
Piper indicum. Cam. Epit. 347. 1586.
Capsicum oblongius Dodonaei. Dalechamp 632. 1587.
Piper indicum minus recurvis siliquis. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713.
Piper indicum maximum longum. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713.
Capsicum recurvis siliquis. Dod. 716. i6i6.
Piper Calecuticum, sive Capsicum oblongius. Bauh. J. 2:943. 1650.
Siliquastrum, Ind. pfeffer. Pancov. n. 296. 1673.
Piper Capsicum. Chabr. 297. 1677.
Piment de Cayenne. Vilm. 151. 1885.
Long Red Cayenne. Ferry.
Mexican Indian, four varieties, one of the exact variety of Fuch. 1542.
Siliquastrum majus. Fuch. 732. 1542.
Long Yellow Cayenne. Hend.
Capsicum longum luteum. Fingerhuth.

(b) Fruits erect.
Capsicum annuum acuminatum. Fingerhuth.
Piper ind. minimum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713.
Piper ind. medium longum erectum. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713.
Piper longum minus siliquis recurvis. Jonston Dendrog. 56. 1662.
Pigment du Chili. Vilm. 410. 1883.
Chili pepper. Vilm. 151. 1885.
Red Cluster. Vilm.
Yellow Chili. Hend.

(a) Fruits long, tapering, pendent.
Piper indicum sive siliquastrum. Pin. 12. 1561.
Capsicum actuarii. Lob. Obs. 172, 1576; Icon. l;3i6. 1591.
Capsicum majus. Dalechamp 632. 1587.
Capsicum longioribus siliquis. Ger. 292. 1597.
Piper indicum. Matth. Op. 434. 1598.
Capsicum oblongioribus siliquis. Dod. 716. i6i6.
Pepe d'lndia. Dur. C. 344. 1617.
Figures 13 and 14. Piso De Ind. 226. 1658.
Guinea pepper or garden coral. Pomet 125. 1748.
Piper indicum bicolor. Blackw. Herb. n. 129, f. 2. 1754.
Piment rouge long. Vilm. 409. 1883.
Long Red capsicum or Guinea. Vilm. 150. 1885.

(b) Fruits short, rounding, pendent.
Siliquastrum quartum. Fuch. 734. X542.
Siliquastrum cordatum. Cam. Epit. 348. 1586.
Fig. 2 and 6. Piso 225. 1658.
Piper cordatum. Jonston Dendrog. 56. 1662.
Capsicum cordiforme, Mill. Fingerhuth.
Oxheart. Thorb.
New Oxheart. Thorb.

(a) Fruit pendent, long.
Piper indicum medium. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713.
Piper siliquis flams. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713.
Piper indicum aureum latum. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713.
Fig. in Hernandez. Nova Hisp. 137. 1651.
Piper indicum longioribus siliquis rubi. Sweert. t. 35, f. 3. 1654.
Piper vulgatissime. Jonston t. 56. 1662.
Piper oblongum recurvis siliquis. Jonston t. 56. 1662.
Capsicum fructu conico albicante, per maturitaken minato. Dill. t. 60. 1774
Piment jaune long. Vilm. 409. 1883.
Long Yellow Capsicum. Vilm. 151. 1885.

(b) Fruits pendent, round.
Siliquastrum rotundum. Cam. Epit. 348. 1586.
Piper rotundum majus surrectum. Jonston t. 56. 1662.
Figure 5. Piso 225. 1658.
Cherry Red, of some seedsmen.

(c) Fruits erect, round.
Piper minimum siliquis rotundis. Hort. Eyst. 1613,1713.
Capsicum cersasiforme. Fingerhuth.
Piment cerise. Vilm. 411. 1883.
Cherry Pepper. Burr 621. 1863; Vilm. 152. 1885.

Capsicum luteum. Lam. Fingerhuth. t. 8.
Prince of Wales, of some seedsmen (yellow).
(Perhaps) Capsicum latum Dodanaei. Dalechamp 632. 1587.
Capsicum latis siliquis. Dod. 717. i6i6.
Capsicum siliquis latiore and rotundiore. Bauh. J. 2:943. 1651.
Piper capsicum siliqui latiori et rotundiore. Chabr. 297. 1677.

This character perhaps results only from the swollen condition of the fruit as produced by selection and culture. As, however, it appears constant in our seedsmen's varieties, it may answer our purpose here.
(a) Fruit very much flattened.
Piper indicum rotundum maximum. Hort. Eyst. 1613, 1713.
Solanum mordeus, etc..
Bonnet Pepper. Pluk. Phyt. t. 227, p. i. 1691.
Capsicum tetragonum. Fingerhuth t. 10.
Piment tomato. Vilm. 413. i886.
Red Tomato capsicum or American bonnet. Vilm. 154. 1885.
(b) Fruit squarish, angular, very much swollen, large.
This group includes the Bell, Sweet Mountain, Monstrous, and Spanish Mammoth of Vilmorin; the Giant Emperor, Golden Dawn, etc. of American seedsmen. The varieties of this class seem referable to Capsicum annuum rugulosum Fing., C. grossum pomiforme Fing. and C. angulosum Fing. but these have not yet been sufficiently studied. Group V embraces the sweet peppers and none other. A sweet kind is noted by Acosta, 1604, and it is perhaps the rocot uchu of Peru, as mentioned by Garcilasso de la Vega. Sweet peppers are also referred to by Piso, 1648.

Occasionally Capsicum baccatum Linn. is grown, but the species is too southern for general use in the North. Its synonymy follows: Capsicum, Piper indicum brevioribus siliquis. Lob. Obs .172. 1576; Icon .1:317. 1591.

Capsicum brasilianum. Dalechamp 633. 1587; Pancov. n. 297. 1673.
Capsicum minimis siliquis. Ger. 292. 1597; Dod. 717. i6i6.
Fig. 8. Piso De Ind. 225. 1658.
Peperis capsicivarietas, siliqua parva, etc. Chabr. 297. 1677.
Capsicum baccatum Linn. Fingerhuth t. 4.
Small Red Cayenne. Briggs Seed Cat. 1874.
Caragana ambigua Stocks. Leguminosae.
Baluchistan. The flowers are eaten by the Brahmans in Baluchistan, where it is called shinalak.

C. arborescens Lam. SIBERIAN PEA TREE.
The seeds are of culinary value but are used particularly for feeding poultry.

Cardamine amara Linn. Cruciferae. BITTER CRESS.
Europe and northern Asia.
Lightfoot says the young leaves are acrid and bitter but do not taste amiss in salads. Johnson says the leaves are often employed by country people in salads, their caste, although pungent and bitter, is not unpleasant.

C. diphylla Wood. PEPPER-ROOT.
North America.
The long, crisp rootstocks taste like water cress. Pursh says they are of a pungent, mustard-like taste and are used by the natives as mustard.

C. glacialis DC. SCURVY GRASS.
Capt. Cook found this scurvy plant in plenty about the Strait of Magellan in damp places and used it as an antiscorbutic.

Temperate and subtropical regions.
Ross calls this the scurvy grass of Tierra del Fuego; it is edible. Lightfoot says the young leaves, in Scotland, make a good salad, and Johns says the leaves and flowers form an agreeable salad. In the United States, Elliott6 and Dewey both say the common bitter cress is used as a salad.

C. nasturtioides Bert.
The plant is eaten as a cress.

Temperate zone.
This is an insignificant and nearly worthless salad plant, native to the whole of Europe, northern Asia and Arctic America, extending to Vermont and Wisconsin. It has a piquant savor and is used as water cress. It is recorded as cultivated in the vegetable garden in France by Noisette, 1829, and by Vilmorin, 1883, yet, as Decaisne and Naudin remark, but rarely. There is no record of its cultivation in England, but in America it is described by Burr in four varieties, differing in the flowers, and as having become naturalized to a limited extent, a fact which implies a certain cultivation. Its seed is not offered in our catalogs.

Northern America.
The leaves, says Gray, "have just the taste of the English water-cress."

C. sarmentosa Forst. f.
Islands of the Pacific.
This plant is eaten as a cress in New Caledonia.

Cardiopteris (Peripterygium) lobata Wall. Olacineae (Cardiopterygaceae).
East Indies.
It has oleraceous leaves, edible but almost insipid.

Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. Sapindaceae. BALLOON VINE. HEART PEA. WINTER CHERRY.
This climbing vine, ornamental on account of its inflated pods, is said by Pickering to be native of subtropical North America and by Black to occur in all tropical countries. In Burma, according to Mason, it is grown in great quantities as a vegetable. In the Moluccas, as Drury states, the leaves are cooked. In equatorial Africa, it is common and the leaves are made into spinach by the natives as Grant observed.

Careya arborea Roxb. Myrtaceae (Barringtoniaceae). SLOWMATCH TREE.
East India.
The fruit is eaten.

Carica citriformis Jacq. f. Passifloreae (Caricaceae).
African Tropics.
This plant bears a fruit the size of an orange, eatable but insipid.

C. microcarpa Jacq.
South America.
The plant bears fruit the size of a cherry.

American tropics.
The papaw tree is indigenous in Brazil, Surinam and the West Indies and from these places has been taken to the Congo. Its transfer to the East Indies may have occurred soon after the discovery of America, for, as early as 1626, seeds were brought from the East Indies to Nepal. Its further distribution to China, Japan and the islands of the Pacific Ocean took place only in the last century0 Linschoten says, it came from the East Indies to the Philippines and was taken thence to Goa. In east Florida, it grows well. Of the fruit, Wm. S. Alien of Florida, writes that it is often as large as a melon, yet the best varieties for eating - those having the best flavor - are no larger than a very large pear. The fruit is used extensively in south Florida and Cuba for making tough meat tender. The toughest meat is made tender by putting a few of the leaves or the green fruit of the pawpaw tree into the pot with the meat and boiling. In a few minutes, the meat will cleave from the bones and be as tender as one could wish.

Dr. Morris read before the Maryland Academy of Science a paper by Mr. Lugger in which the fruit is said to attain a weight of 15 pounds, is melon-shaped, and marked as melons are with longitudinally-colored stripes. The fruit may be sliced and pickled. The ripe fruit is eaten with sugar or salt and pepper. The seeds are egg-shaped, strong-flavored and used as a spice. The leaves have the property of making meat wrapped up in them tender. Brandis also says, meat becomes tender by washing it with water impregnated with the milky juice, or by suspending the joint under the tree. Williams says, the Chinese are acquainted with this property and make use of it sometimes to soften the flesh of ancient hens and cocks by hanging the newly-killed birds in the tree, or by feeding them upon the fruit beforehand. The Chinese also eat the leaves. Hemdon says, on the mountains of Peru, the fruit is of the size of a common muskmelon, with a green skin and yellow pulp, which is eaten and is very sweet and of a delicate flavor. Hartt says the mamao, a species of Carica in Brazil, furnishes a large and savory fruit full of seeds. Brandis calls the ripe fruit in India sweet and pleasant, and says the unripe fruit is eaten as a vegetable and preserved. Wilkes says, it is prized by the natives of Fiji, and Gray says the fruit is a favorite esculent of the Sandwich Islanders. The tree bears in a year or 18 months from seed and is cultivated in tropical climates.

C. posopora Linn.
Peru and Chile.
This species bears yellow, pear-shaped, edible fruit.

Carissa grandiflora, A. DC. Apocynaceae. AMATUNGULA. CARAUNDA. NATAL PLUM.
South Africa.
The flavor is subacid and agreeable and the fruit is much prized in Natal for preserving.

Carlina acanthifolia All. Compositae. ACANTHUS-LEAVED THISTLE.
Mediterranean region.
The receptacle of the flowers may be used like that of an artichoke.

C. vulgaris Linn. CARLINE THISTLE.
Europe and northern Asia.
The receptacles of the flowers are used like an artichoke.

Carlotea (Hippeastrum) formosissimum Arruda. Family unknown (Amaryllidaceae).
The tuberous root, abounding with soft and nutritive fecula, has afforded assistance to the people in parts of Brazil, in times of. drought.10

C. speciosa Arruda.
The tuberous roots have found use in Brazil.

Carpodinus acida Sabine. Apocynaceae.
A climbing shrub of Sierra Leone.
The fruit has a sharp, acid taste, with some little bitterness, which prevents its being agreeable; it is, however, much liked by the natives.

C. dulcis Sabine. SWEET PISHAMIN.
Sierra Leone.
The fruit is yellow externally, in size and appearance resembling a lime. When broken or cut it yields a quantity of sweet, milky juice. The pulp, in which many large seeds are found, is also agreeable and sweet.

Carthamus tinctorius Linn. Compositae. FALSE SAFFRON. SAFFLOWER.
Old World; extensively cultivated in India, China and other parts of Asia; also in Egypt, southern Europe and in South America.
Under the name of safflower, the flowers are used largely for dyeing. Phillips says the flowers are used in Spain and in the Levant to color foods. The oil from the seeds in India is used for lamps and for culinary purposes, says Drury. In South America, as well as in Jamaica, as Ainslie writes, the flowers are much used for coloring broths and ragouts. They were so used in England in the time of Parkinson. In American seed catalogs, the seed is offered under the name of saffron but the true saffron is the product of a crocus.

Carum bulbocastanum Koch. Umbelliferae. PIGNUT.
Europe and Asia.
The tuberous roots serve as a culinary vegetable and the fruit as a condiment. Lightfoot says the roots are bulbous and taste like a chestnut; in some parts of England they are boiled in broth and served at the table. Pallas says the roots are eaten by the Tartars.

C. capense Sond.
South Africa.
The. edible, aromatic root is called feukel-wortel.

C. carvi Linn. CARAWAY. KUMMEL.
Europe, Orient and northern Asia.
This biennial plant is described by Dioscorides and mentioned by Galen. Pliny states that it derives its name from its native country, Caria, and that it is used chiefly in the culinary art. Caraway is now cultivated largely for its seed in England, particularly in Essex, in Iceland where it is apparently wild, in Morocco and elsewhere. The seeds are exported from Finland, Russia, Germany, Prussia, North Holland and Morocco. The seeds are used in confectionery and distillation. In England, the seed is used by cottagers to mix with their bread, and caraway-seed bread may often be found in restaurants in the United States. In Schleswig-Holstein and Holland, they are added to a skim-milk cheese called Kummel cheese. The roots are edible and were considered by Parkinson to be superior to parsnips and are still eaten in northern Europe. The young leaves form a good salad and the larger ones may be boiled and eaten as a spinach. Lightfoot says the young leaves are good in soups and the roots are by some esteemed a delicate food. It was cultivated in American gardens in 1806 and is still to be found.

The seeds of caraway were found by O. Heer in the debris of the lake habitations of Switzerland, which establishes the antiquity of the plant in Europe. This fact renders it more probable that the Careum of Pliny is this plant, as also its use by Apicius would indicate. It is mentioned as cultivated in Morocco by Edrisi in the twelfth century. In the Arab writings, quoted by Ibn Baytar, a Mauro-Spaniard of the thirteenth century, it is likewise named; and Fleuckiger and Hanbury think the use of this spice commenced at about this period. Caraway is not noticed by St. Isidore, Archbishop of Seville in the seventh century, although he notices dill, coriander, anise, and parsley; nor is it named by St. Hildegard in Germany in the twelfth century. But, on the other hand, two German medicine books of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries use the word cumick, which is still the popular name in southern Germany. In the same period the seeds appear to have been used by the Welsh physicians of Myddvai, and caraway was certainly in use in England at the close of the fourteenth century and is named in Turner's Libellus, 1538, as also in The Forme of Cury, 1390.

C. copticum Benth. & Hook. f.
Europe, north Africa and northern Asia.
This small plant is very much cultivated during the cold season in Bengal, where it is called ajowan, ajonan or javanee. The seeds have an aromatic smell and warm pungent taste and are used in India for culinary purposes as spices with betel nuts and paw leaves and as a carminative medicine. The seeds are said to have the flavor of thyme.

C. ferulaefolium Boiss.
Mediterranean region.
This plant is a perennial herb with small, edible tubers. Its whitish and bitterish roots are said by Dioscorides to be eaten both raw and cooked. In Cyprus, these roots are still cooked and eaten.

C. (Perideridia) gairdneri A. Gray. EDIBLE-ROOTED CARAWAY.
Western North America.
The root is a prominent article of food among the California Indians. The Nez Perce Indians collect the tuberous roots and boil them like potatoes. They are the size of a man's finger, of a very agreeable taste, with a cream-like flavor.

C. (Perideridia) kelloggii A. Gray.
The root is used by the Indians of California as a food.

C. (Petroselinum) petroselinum (crispum) Benth. & Hook. f. PARSLEY.
Old World.
Parsley is cultivated everywhere in gardens, for use as a seasoning and as a garnish. Eaten with any dish strongly seasoned with onions, it takes off the smell of onion and prevents the after taste. It excels other herbs for communicating flavor to soups and stews. Among the Greeks and Romans, parsley formed part of the festive garlands, and Pliny states that in his time there was not a salad or a sauce presented at table without it. The ancients supposed that its grateful smell absorbed the inebriating fumes of wine and by that means prevented intoxication. Parsley seems to be the apium of the ancient Romans, the selinon of Theophrastus, who, 322 B. C., describes two varieties; one with crowded, dense leaves, the other with more open and broader leafage. Columella, 42 A. D., speaks of the broad-leaved and curled sorts and gives directions for the culture of each; and Pliny, 79 A. D., mentions the cultivated form as having varieties with a thick leaf and a crisp leaf, evidently copying from Theophrastus. He adds, however, apparently from his own observation, that apium is in general esteem, for the sprays find use in large quantities in broths and give a peculiar palatability to condimental foods. In Achaea, it is used, so he says, for the victor's crown in the Nemean games. A little later, Galen, 164 A. D., praises parsley as among the commonest of foods, sweet and grateful to the stomach, and says that some eat it with smyrnium mixed with the leaves of lettuce. Palladius, about 210 A. D., mentions the method of procuring the curled form from the common and says that old seed germinates more freely than fresh seed. (This is a peculiarity of parsley seed at present and is directly the opposite to that of celery seed.) Apicius, 230 A. D., a writer on cookery, makes use of the apium viride and of the seed. In the thirteenth century, Albertus Magnus speaks of apium and petroselinum as being kitchen-garden plants; he speaks of each as being an herb the first year, a vegetable the second year of growth. He says apium has broader and larger leaves than petroselinum and that petroselinum has leaves like the cicuta; and that the petroselinum is more of a medicine than a food.

Booth states that parsley was introduced into England in 1548 from Sardinia. In addition to its general use, in Cornwall where it is much esteemed, it is largely used in parsley pies. The plant is now naturalized in some parts of England and Scotland. Parsley is mentioned as seen on the coast of Massachusetts by Verazzano, about 1524, but this is undoubtedly an error. Two kinds, the common and curled, are mentioned for our gardens by McMahon, 1806. Pessenden, 1828, names three sorts, and Thor-burn, 1881, four sorts.

At the present time we have five forms; the common or plain-leaved, the celery-leaved or Neapolitan, the curled, the fem-leaved and the Hamburg, or turnip-rooted.
The plain-leaved form is not now much grown, having been superseded by the more ornamental, curled forms. In 1552, Tragus says there is no kitchen-garden in Germany without it and it is used by the rich as well as the poor. Matthiolus, 1558 and 1570, says it is one of the most common plants of the garden. In 1778, Mawe says it is the sort most commonly grown in English gardens but many prefer the curled kinds; in 1834, Don says it is seldom cultivated. It was in American gardens in 1806.

Apium hortense. Matth. 362. 1558; 512. 1570; 562. 1598; Pin.
333. 1561; Dalechamp 700. 1587; Lob. Icon. 706. 1591; Ger. 861.
1597; Dod. 694. 1616.
Garden parsley. Lyte Dod. 696. 1586.
Common parsley. Ray 448. 1686; McMahon 127. 1806.
Plane parsley. Mawe 1778.
Common plain-leaved. Don 3:279. 1834.
Plain parsley. Burr. 433. 1863.
Persil commun. Vilm. 403. 1883.

The Celery-leaved, or Neapolitan, is scarcely known outside of Naples. It differs from common parsley in the large size of its leaves and leaf-stalks and it may be blanched as a celery. It was introduced into France by Vilmorin in 1823. Pliny mentions parsleys with thick stalks and says the stalks of some are white. This may be the Apium hortense maximum of Bauhin, 1596, as the description applies well. He says it is now grown in gardens and was first called English Apium. He does not mention it in his Pinax, 1623, under the same name, but under that of latifolium. Linnaeus considers this to be Ligusticum peregrinum.

Persil celeri ou de Naples. L'Hort. Franc. 1824.
Naples or Celery-leaved. Burr 434. 1863.
Persil grand de Naples. Vilm. 404. 1883.

Of these, there are many varieties, differing but in degree, such as the Curled, Extra Curled, Moss Curled and Triple Curled. Pena and Lobel, 1570, mention this form and say it is very elegant and rare, brought from the mountains the past year and grown in gardens, the leaves curled on the borders, very graceful and tremulous, with minute incisions. In the synonymy, many of the figures do not exhibit the curled aspect which the name and description indicate; hence, we make two divisions, the curled and the very curled. The curled was in American gardens preceding 1806.

(a) The curled.
Apium crispum sive multifidum. Ger. 861. 1597. cum ic.
Apium crispum. Matth. Op. 562. 1598. cum ic.

(b) Very curled.
Apium crispatum. Advers. 315. 1570; Dalechamp 700. 1587.
Apium. Cam. Epit. 526. 1586.
Petroselinum vulgo, crispum. Bauh. J. 3:pt. 2, 97. 1651.
Curled. Townsend. 1726; Mawe 1778; McMahon 127. 1806. Thorb. Kal. 1821.
Apium crispum. Mill. Diet. 1731, from Mill. Diet. 1807.
Apium petroselinum. Bryant . 1783.
Curled or Double. Fessenden 222. 1828; Bridgeman 1832.
Persil frise. L'Hort. Franc. 1824; Vilm. 404. 1883.
Dwarf curled. Fessenden 222. 1828; Burr 432. 1863.
Curled leaved. Don 3:279. 1834.

The Fem-leaved has leaves which are not curled but are divided into a very great number of small, thread-like segments and is of a very dark green color. It is included in American seed catalogs of 1878. This form seems, however, to be described by Bauhin in his edition of Matthiolus, 1598, as a kind with leaves of the coriander, but with very many extending from one branch, lacinate and the stem-leaves unlike the coriander because long and narrow.

Hamburg parsley is grown for its roots, which are used as are parsnips. It seems to have been used in Germany in 1542, or earlier, but its use was indicated as of Holland origin even then in the name used, Dutch parsley. It did not reach England until long after. In 1726, Townsend, a seedsman, had heard that "the people in Holland boil the roots of it and eat it as a good dish." Miller is said to have introduced it in 1727 and to have grown it himself for some years before it became appreciated. In 1778, it is said to be called Hamburg parsley and to be in esteem. In 1783, Bryant mentions its frequent occurrence in the London markets. It was in American gardens in 1806.

Oreoselinum. Fuch. 573. 1542.
Petroselinum. Trag. 459. 1552.
Apium. Cam. Epit. 526. 1586.
Apium hortense Fuchsii. Bauh. J. 3:pt. 2, 97. 1651.
Apium latifolium. Mill. Diet. 1737.
Dutch parsley. Gard. Kal. 127. 1765.
Hamburg parsley. Mawe 1778.
Broad-leaved. Mawe 1778.
Hamburg or large rooted. McMahon 1806; Burr 433. 1863.
Large rooted. Thorb. Kal. 1821.
Persil tubereux. L'Hort. Franc. 1824.
Per sit a grosse racine. Vilm. 405. 1883.
A persil panache (plumed parsley) is mentioned by Pirolle, in L'Hort. Franfais, 1824.

C. segentum Benth. & Hook. f.
This is an aromatic, annual herb available for culinary purposes.

C. sylvestre Baill.
East Indies.
This plant is used as a carminative by the natives.

North America.
In 1773, at an Indian village in the South, Bartram noticed a cultivated plantation of the shellbark hickory, the trees thriving and bearing better than those left to nature. Emerson says this tree ought to be cultivated for its nuts which differ exceedingly in different soils and situations and often on individual trees growing in immediate proximity. In 1775, Romans speaks of the Florida Indians using hickory nuts in plenty and making a milky liquor of them, which they called milk of nuts. He says: "This milk they are very fond of and eat it with sweet potatoes in it." The hickory nut now not only furnishes food to a large number of the Indians of the far West but is an important article in our markets and is even exported to Britain.

C. microcarpa Nutt. SMALL-FRUITED HICKORY.
Eastern North America.
The nuts are edible but not prized.

C. olivaeformis Nutt. PECAN.
A slender tree of eastern North America from Illinois southward. The delicious pecan is well known in our markets and is exported to Europe. It was eaten by the Indians and called by them pecaunes, and an oil expressed from it was used by the natives of Louisiana to season their food. Its use at or near Madrid on the Mississippi by the Indians is mentioned in the Portuguese Relation of De Soto's expedition. The pecan is now extensively cultivated in the Southern States for its fruit.

North America.
The pignut is a large tree of Eastern United States. The nuts are variable in form, hard and tough, the kernel sweetish or bitterish but occasionally eaten by children.

Pennsylvania to Illinois and Kentucky. The nuts of this tree are eaten by the Indians and are considered of fine quality. This is one of the species recommended for culture by the American Pomological Society.

Eastern North America.
This hickory bears a nut with a very thick and hard shell. The kernel is sweet and in some varieties is as large as in the shellbark, but the difficulty of extracting it makes it far less valuable. A variety is found with prominent angles, called square nut.

Caryocar amygdaliferum Cav. Ternstroemiaceae (Caryocaraceae). CARYOCAR.
A high tree in Ecuador.
The kernel of the nut is edible and has the taste of almonds. This is the almendron of Mariquita. "The nuts are fine."

C. amygdaliforme Ruiz & Pav.
The tree bears nuts that taste like almonds.

C. brasiliense St. Hil. PIQUIA-OIL PLANT.
This species bears an oily, mucilaginous fruit, containing a sort of chestnut eaten in times of famine. This is perhaps the Acantacaryx pinguis Arruda, a large tree that produces most abundantly a fruit the size of an orange, of which the pulp is oily, feculous and nourishing. It is the delight of the inhabitants of Ceara and Piauhy and is called piqui.

C. butyrosum Willd.
This plant is cultivated for its nuts in Cayenne. These are esculent and taste somewhat like a Brazil nut. It is called pekea by the natives of Guiana. It furnishes a timber valuable for shipbuilding.

C. glabrum Pers.
It furnishes edible nuts. It is sometimes cultivated, and the trees are much used in shipbuilding and for other purposes. The natives make much use of the nuts.

C. nuciferum Linn. BUTTERNUT.
A lofty tree of British Guiana which produces the souari or butternut of the English markets. These nuts are shaped something like a kidney flattened upon two sides and have an exceedingly hard, woody shell of a rich, reddish-brown color, covered all over with round wart-like protuberances, which encloses a large, white kernel of a pleasant, nutty taste yielding a bland oil by pressure.

C. tomentosum Willd. BUTTERNUT.
The plant bears a sweet and edible nut.

Caryota obtusa Griff. Palmae.
A very large palm of the Mishmi Mountains in India. The central part of the trunk is used by the natives as food.

Malabar, Bengal, Assam and various other parts of India.
The center of the stem is generally soft, the cells being filled with sago-like farina, which is made into bread and eaten as gruel. But the main value of this palm consists in the abundance of sweet sap which is obtained from the cut spadix and which is either fermented or boiled down into syrup and sugar.5

Casearia esculenta Roxb. Samydaceae.
Tropical Asia.
The leaves are eaten by the natives.

Casimiroa edulis La Llave. Rutaceae. MEXICAN APPLE. WHITE SAPOTA.
This tree grows wild and is cultivated in the states of Sinaloa, Durango and elsewhere in Mexico and is known by the name of zapote blanco. The fruit is about an inch in diameter, pale yellow in color and is most palatable when near decay. It has a very rich, subacid taste, and the native Californians are very fond of it. Masters says its fruit has an agreeable taste but induces sleep and is unwholesome and that the seeds are poisonous.

Cassia auriculata Linn. Leguminosae. CASSIA.
East Indies.
In some parts of the country, a spirituous liquor is prepared by adding the bruised bark to a solution of molasses and allowing the mixture to ferment.

C. fistula Linn.
Tropical Asia.
This handsome tree has been introduced into the West Indies and northern Africa, whence its-pods are imported for use in medicine. In Mysore, stalks of it are put in the ground and worshipped. It is classed by Unger as among the little-used vegetable foods, the pulp apparently being eaten. This pulp about the seeds is, however, a strong purgative.

C. occidentalis Linn. STINKING WEED.
Cosmopolitan tropics.
Rafinesque says the pods of this plant are long, with many seeds, which the countrymen use instead of coffee. It is found in tropical and subtropical America and in both Indies. It has been carried to the Philippines, and its seeds, while tender, are eaten by boys. Naturalized in the Mauritius, the natives use the roasted seeds as a substitute for coffee. Livingstone found the seeds used as coffee in interior Africa.

C. sophera Linn. CACAY.
Old World tropics.
This plant is said by Unger to be used as a vegetable in Amboina.

Cassytha cuscutiformis (?) Lauraceae. DODDER-LAUREL.
The white drupes of this north Australian species are edible.
The plants are semi-parasitical and are often called dodder-laurel.

C. filiformis Linn.
Cosmopolitan tropics.
The plant is put as a seasoning into buttermilk and is much used for this purpose by the Brahmans in southern India. In Yemen, its berries are eaten by boys.

Castanea dentata Borkh. Cupuliferae (Fagaceae). AMERICAN CHESTNUT.
Southward from Maine as far as Florida and westward as far as Michigan but not in the prairie regions. Chestnuts were mixed with pottage by the Indians of New England and they now appear in season in all our markets and are sold roasted on the streets of our cities. The American variety bears smaller and sweeter nuts than the European.

C. pumila Mill. CHINQUAPIN.
Southern United States.
Pursh l says the nuts are sweet and delicious; Vasey, that they are not comparable to those of C. dentata but are eaten by children.

Europe, Japan and North America.
The native country of the chestnut is given by Targioni-Tozzetti as the south of Europe from Spain to Caucasus; Pickering says, eastern Asia. Other writers say it was first introduced into Europe from Sardis in Asia Minor; it is called Sardinian balanos by Dioscorides and Dios balanos by Theophrastus. It is evident from the writings of Virgil that chestnuts were abundant in Italy in his time. There are now many varieties cultivated. Chestnuts which bear nuts of a very large size are grown in Madeira. In places, chestnuts form the usual food of the common people, as in the Apennine mountains of Italy, in Savoy and the south of France. They are used not only boiled and roasted but also in puddings, cakes and bread. Chestnuts afford a great part of the food of the peasants in the mountains of Madeira. In Sicily, chestnuts afford the poorer class of people their principal food in some parts of the isle; bread and puddings are made of the flour. In Tuscany, they are ground into flour and chiefly used in the form of porridge or pudding. In the coffeehouses of Lucca, Peseta and Pistoja, pates, muffins, tarts and other articles are made of chestnuts and are considered delicious. In Morea, chestnuts now form the principal food of the people for the whole year. Xenophon states that the children of the Persian nobility were fattened on chestnuts. In the valleys inhabited by the Waldenses, in the Cevennes and in a great part of Spain, the chestnut furnishes nutriment for the common people. Charlemagne commended the propagation of chestnuts to his people. In modern Europe, only the fruits of cultivated varieties are considered suitable for food. This species is enumerated by Thunberg n as among the edible plants of Japan.

Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & Eraser. Leguminosae. MORETON BAY CHESTNUT.
Eraser says the fruit is eaten by the natives on all occasions and when roasted has the flavor of a Spanish chestnut. Europeans, from necessity, have subsisted on the fruit for two days, the raw fruit griping but the roasted being innoxious.

Catesbaea spinosa Linn. Rubiaceae.
A shrub of the West, Indies.
The fruit is yellow, pulpy and of an agreeable taste.

Catha edulis Forsk. Celastraceae. ARABIAN TEA. KAT.
A shrub of tropical Africa.
The leaves are used by the Arabs in the preparation of a beverage possessing properties analogous to those of tea and coffee. Large quantities of twigs with the leaves attached are annually brought to Aden from the interior. The shrub is called by the natives cafta. Prior to the introduction of coffee, says Pickering, the use of kat was established in Yemen by Alt Schadheli ben Omar. Various virtues are attributed to the leaves which are eaten with avidity by the Arabs.

Caucalis anthriscus Huds. Umbelliferae. HEDGE PARSLEY.
Wilkinson says this is the anthriscum of Pliny, now called in Arabic gezzer e'shaytan, and that it is esculent.

Europe and temperate Asia.
Gerarde calls this plant bastard parsley and hen's foot. It is the sesslis of the Egyptians. It was called a potherb by Dioscorides and Pliny, and Galen says it is pickled for salads in winter.

Caulanthus crassicaulis S. Wats. Cruciferae. WILD CABBAGE.
Western regions of America.
It is sometimes used as a food, says Rothrock, when a better substitute cannot be found.

Cavendishia sp. ? Vacciniaceae (Ericaceae).
Frigid regions of the Andes of Peru.
This is a tall, evergreen shrub with pink, edible berries the size of a cherry.