C. virginianus Pursh.
The roots are about the size of carrots, are sweet and
well flavored but require a long preparation. They are eaten by the
Coccinia indica Wight & Am. Cucurbitaceae. SCARLET-FRUITED
The fruit of this plant, so common in every hedge, is eaten
by the natives in their curries and when fully ripe is eaten by birds.
C. moimoi M. Roem.
Tropical Arabia and Africa.
The fruit is eaten.
Coccoloba uvifera Linn. Polygonaceae. KINO. SEASIDE GRAPE.
Shores of the West Indies and neighboring portions of tropical America.
Its fruit is eatable and commonly sold in markets but is not much
esteemed. As grown in India, the fruit is reddish-purple, pear-shaped,
sweetish-acid and is borne in drooping racemes. The fruit consists of
the fleshy perianth which encloses a solitary seed.
Cocculus cebatha DC. Menispermaceae.
A woody vine of tropical Arabia.
The ripe berries are acrid but edible,
and a spirituous liquor is obtained from them.
C. limacia DC.
The berries are acid and edible.
Cochlearia armoracia Linn. Cruciferae. HORSERADISH. RED
This well-known condimental plant is indigenous to eastern
Europe from the Caspian through Russia and Poland to Finland and is
now spontaneous in the United States. Both the leaves and roots were
eaten in Germany during the Middle Ages but their use was not
common in England until a much later period. This plant cannot be
identified with certainty with the armoracia of the Romans. If it be the
armoracia of Palladius, which is a wild plant transferred to the garden,
it is very curious that its use is not mentioned by Apicius in his work
on cookery, of the same century. Zanonius deems horseradish to be the
draba of Dioscorides. It seems to be the raphanus of Albertus Magnus,
who lived in the thirteenth century; he speaks of the plant as wild and
domesticated, but its culture then was probably for medicinal purposes
alone, as indicated by him. Its culture in Italy, in 1563, is implied by
Ruellius under the name armoracia but Castor Durante, 1617, does
not describe it. In Germany, its culture as a condimental plant is
mentioned by Fuchsius, 1542, and by later writers. In 1587,
Dalechamp speaks of its culture in Germany but does not mention it in
France. Lyte, 1586, mentions the wild plant and its uses as a
condiment in England but does not imply culture. Horseradish, though
known in England as red cole in 1568, is not mentioned by Turner as
used in food, nor is it noticed by Boorde, 1542, in his chapter on edible
roots in the Dyetary of Helth. Gerarde speaks of it as used by the
Germans, and Coles, in Adam in Eden, states that the root sliced thin
and mixed with vinegar is eaten as a sauce with meat as among the
Germans. In the United States, horseradish is in general cultivation for
market purposes. It was included by McMahon, 1806, in his list of
C. danica Linn.
Northern and Arctic regions.
This species is employed as a salad plant.
C. macrocarpa Waldst. & Kit.
Hungary and Transylvania.
The root may be used as a horseradish but
it is less acrid.
C. officinalis Linn. SCURVY GRASS. SPOONWORT.
This species is used occasionally as a cress and is
cultivated in gardens for that purpose. It is a common plant in some
parts of Scotland, and Lightfoot says "it is eaten in sallads as an
antiscorbutic." It serves as a scurvy grass in Alaska.
Cocos australis Mart. Palmae.
This palm bears a fruit somewhat the shape and size of an
acorn, with a pointed tip and is of a beautiful golden-yellow color
somewhat tinged or spotted with red when ripe. At maturity, it is soft
and pulpy, the flesh yellow, succulent and somewhat fibrous. The flavor
is delicious, resembling that of a pineapple.
C. butyracea Linn. f. OIL PALM. WINE PALM.
This is the palma de vino of the Magdalena. This tree is
cut down and a cavity excavated in its trunk near the top. In three
days, this cavity is found filled with a yellowish-white juice, very limpid,
with a sweet and vinous flavor. During 18 or 20 days, the palm-tree
wine is daily collected; the last is less sweet but more alcoholic and
more highly esteemed. One tree yields as much as 18 bottles of sap,
each bottle containing 42 cubic inches, or about three and a quarter
C. coronata Mart.
This species yields a pith, which the Indians make into bread,
and a nut from which an oil is extracted.
C. nucifera Linn. COCOANUT.
The centers of the geographical range of this palm are the
islands and countries bordering the Indian and Pacific oceans but it is
now extensively cultivated throughout the tropics. About 1330, it was
described in India, and quite correctly too, under the name of nargil, by
Friar Jordanus. In 1524, the cocoanut was seen by Pizarro in an Indian
coast village of Peru. In the vicinity of Key West and as far north as
Jupiter Inlet, the cocoanut is found, having been first introduced about
1840 by the wrecking of a vessel that threw a quantity of these nuts
upon the beach. Thirty species of cocoanut are said by Simmonds to be
described and named in the East. Firminger mentions ten varieties in
India. Captain Cook found several sorts at Batavia. Ellis says there are
many varieties in Tahiti. The nuts are much used as a food. When the
embryo is unformed, the fruit furnishes sweet palm-milk, a further
development supplies a white, sweet and aromatic kernel; it finally
becomes still firmer and then possesses a pleasant, sweet oil. In the Fiji
Islands, the kernel of the old nut is scraped, pressed through a grater,
and the pulp thus formed is mixed with grasses and scented woods and
suffered to stand in the sun, which causes the oil to rise to the top,
when it is skimmed off. The residuum, called kora, is pounded or
mashed, wrapped in banana leaves and then buried under salt water
covered with piles of stones. This preparation is a common food of the
natives. Toddy or palm-wine, is also made from the sap of the flowerspathes.
C. oleracea Mart. IRAIBA PALM.
The leaf-buds, or cabbages, are edible.
C. ventricosa Arruda.
The oily pulp of the fruit and the almond of the inner stone is
eaten and is sold in the markets. The pith contains a fecula which is
extracted in times of want and is eaten.
Codiaeum variegatum Blume. Euphorbiaceae.
This species is used as a vegetable.
Coffea arabica Linn. Rubiaceae. COFFEE.
Arabia and African tropics.
This shrub is found wild in Abyssinia and
in the Sudan where it forms forests. It is mentioned as seen from the
mid-Niger to Sierra Leone and from the west coast to Monrovia. In the
territory west of Braganza, says Livingstone, wild coffee is abundant,
and the people even make their huts of coffee trees. On or about the
equator, says Grant, the m'wanee, or coffee, is cultivated in
considerable quantities but the berry is eaten raw as a stimulant, never
drunk in an infusion by the Wanyambo. The Ugundi, says Long, never
make a decoction of coffee but chew the grain raw; this is a general
custom. The Unyoro, says Burton, have a plantation of coffee about
almost every hut door. According to the Arabian tradition, says Krapf,
the civet-cat brought the coffee-bean to the mountains of the Arusi and
Ilta-Gallas, where it grew and was long cultivated, until an enterprising
merchant carried the coffee plant, five hundred years ago, to Arabia
where it soon became acclimated.
About the fifteenth century, writes Phillips, the use of coffee appears to
have been introduced from Persia to Aden on the Red Sea. It was
progressively used at Mecca, Medina, and Cairo; hence it continued its
progress to Damascus and Aleppo. From these two places, it was
introduced into Constantinople in the year 1554. Rauwolf, who was in
the Levant in 1573, was the first European author who made any
mention of coffee, but the first who has particularly described it, is
Prosper Alpinus, 1591, and 1592. The Venetians seem to be the next
who used coffee. This beverage was noticed by two English travellers at
the beginning of the seventeenth century, Biddulph about 1603 and
William Finch in 1607. Lord Bacon mentions it in 1624. M. Thevenot
taught the French to drink coffee on his return from the East in 1657. It
was fashionable and more widely known in Paris in 1669. Coffee is said
to have been first brought to England in 1641, but Evelyn says in his
diary, 1637. It was first publicly known in London in 1652. According
to other accounts, the custom of drinking coffee originated with the
Abyssinians, by whom the plant had been cultivated from time
immemorial, and was introduced to Aden in the early part of the
fifteenth century, whence its use gradually extended over Arabia.
Towards the end of the seventeenth century, the Dutch transported the
plant to Batavia, and thence a plant was sent to the botanic gardens at
Amsterdam, where it was propagated, and in 1714 a tree was presented
to Louis XIV. A tree was imported into the Isle of Bourbon in 1720. One
account asserts that the French introduced it to Martinique in 1717
and another states that the Dutch had previously taken it to Surinam.
It reached Jamaica in 1728. It seems certain that we are indebted to the
progeny of a single plant for all the coffee now imported from Brazil and
the West Indies. It was introduced to Celebes in 1822. In Java and
Sumatra, the leaves of the coffee plant are used as a substitute for
coffee. In 1879, four trees were known to have been grown and
successfully fruited in Florida.
C. liberica Hiern. LIBERIAN COFFEE.
This seems to be a distinct species, which furnishes the
Liberian coffee. It was received in Trinidad from Kew Gardens, England,
Coix lacryma-jobi Linn. Gramineae. JOB'S TEARS.
The seeds may be ground to flour and made into a coarse
but nourishing bread which is utilized in times of scarcity.
Cola acuminata Schott & Endl. Sterculiaceae. COLANUT.
This tree, a native of tropical Africa, is cultivated in
Brazil and the West Indies. Under the name of cola or kolla or gooranuts,
the seeds are extensively used as a sort of condiment by the
natives of western and central tropical Africa and likewise by the
negroes in the West Indies and Brazil. There are several varieties. Father
Carli noticed them in Congo in 1667 under the name of colla. Earth
says the chief article of African produce in the Kano markets is the guro
or kolanut, which forms an important article of trade and which has
become to the natives as necessary as coffee or tea is to us. The nuts
contain the alkaloid thein. A small piece of one of their seeds is chewed
before each meal as a promoter of digestion; it is also supposed to
improve the flavor of anything eaten after it or, as Father Carli says,
"they have a little bitterness but the water drank after makes them very
sweet. This plant was introduced into Martinique about 1836. Its"
amylaceous seeds, of a not very agreeable taste, are much sought after
by the negroes.
Colea telfairii Boj. Bignoniaceae.
The fruit is eaten.
Coleus aromaticus Benth. Labiatae. COLEUS. COUNTRY BORAGE.
This is the country borage of India. Every part of the plant
is delightfully fragrant, and the leaves are frequently eaten and mixed
with various articles of food in India. In Burma, it is in common use as
a potherb. A purple coleus was observed in cultivation in northern
Japan by Miss Bird, the leaves of which are eaten as spinach.
C. barbatus Benth.
East Indies and tropical Africa.
About Bombay, this species is
commonly cultivated in the gardens of the natives for the roots, which
C. spicatus Benth.
Wilkinson 8 quotes Pliny as saying that the Egyptians grew
this plant for making chaplets and for food.
Colocasia antiquorum Schott. Aroideae (Araceae). DASHEEN.
This is very probably an Indian plant, as it is cultivated
in the whole of central Asia in very numerous varieties and has a
Sanscrit name. It was carried westward in the earliest times and is
cultivated in the delta of Egypt under the name of Quolkas. Clusius,
writing in 1601, had seen it in Portugal. The Spaniards are said to call
it alcoleaz and to have received it from Africa. Boissier cites it as
common in middle Spain. Lunan says there are several varieties
cultivated in Jamaica which are preferred by the negroes to yams. In
1844, this species was cultivated by Needham Davis of South Carolina,
who says one acre of rich, damp soil will produce one thousand
bushels by the second year. In India, colocasias are universally
cultivated and the roots are without acrimony. The tubers, says
Firminger, resemble in outward appearance those of the Jerusalem
artichoke. They are not in great request with Europeans in Bengal
where potatoes may be had all the year through but in the Northwest
Provinces, where potatoes are unobtainable during the summer
months, they are much consumed in the way of a substitute. Their
flavor is not unlike salsify. The plant is cultivated extensively by the
Polynesians, who call it taro; the tubers are largely consumed and the
young leaves are eaten as a spinach.
C. antiquorum esculenta Schott. ELEPHANT'S EAR. KALO. TARO.
This plant is largely grown in Tahiti, and Ellis says the natives have
distinct names for 33 of the varieties.
Nordoff says more than 30
varieties of kalo are cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and adds that all
the kinds are acrid except one which is so mild that it may be eaten
raw. Simpson says, "Kalo forms the principal food of the lower class of
the Sandwich Islanders and is cultivated with great care in small
enclosures kept wet." From the root a sort of paste called poi is made.
Masters says it is called taro, and the rootstocks furnish a staple diet. It
is also grown in the Philippines and is enumerated by Thunberg among
the edible plants of Japan. In Jamaica, Sloane says the roots are eaten
as potatoes, but the chief use of the vegetable, says Lunan, is as a
green, and it is as delicate, wholesome, and agreeable a one as any in
the world. In soup it is excellent, for such is the tenderness of the leaves
that they, in a manner, dissolve and afford a rich, pleasing and
mucilaginous ingredient. It is very generally cultivated in Jamaica.
Adams found the boiled leaves very palatable in the Philippines but the
uncooked leaves were so acrid as to be poisonous. At Hongkong, the
tubers are eaten under the name of cocoas. In Europe and America it is
grown as an ornamental plant.
C. indica Hassk.
This plant is cultivated in Bengal for its esculent stems
and the small, pendulous tubers of its root, which are eaten by people
of all ranks in their curries. Roylel says it is much cultivated about the
huts of the natives. It is also cultivated in Brazil and is found in East
Australia. The acridity is expelled from this plant by cooking.
Combretum butyrosum Tul. Combretaceae. BUTTER TREE.
The Kaffirs call the fatty substance obtained from the
fruit chiquito. It is largely used by them as an admixture to their food
and is also exported.
Commelina angustifolia? Commelinaceae.
The rhizomes contain a good deal of starch mixed with mucilage and
are therefore fit for food when cooked.
C. coelestis Willd. BLUE SPIDERWORT.
The rhizomes are used as food in India.
C. communis Linn.
In China, this plant is much cultivated as a potherb, which is
eaten in spring.
C. latifolia Hochst.
It is used as a potherb.
The rhizomes are suitable for food.
Comocladia integrifolia Jacq. Anacardiaceae. BURN-WOOD.
MAIDEN PLUM. PAPAW-WOOD.
Lunan says the fruit is eatable but not inviting. The
maiden plum of the West Indies, says Morris, is grown as a fruit in the
Public Gardens of Jamaica.
Conanthera bifolia Ruiz & Pav. Haemodoraceae (Tecophilaeaceae).
The natives of the country make use of the root of this plant in
their soups and it is very pleasant to the taste. Molina says the bulbs,
when boiled or roasted, are an excellent food. It is called illmu.
Condalia mexicana Schlecht. Rhamnaceae.
Northern Mexico. The berries are similar to those of C. obovata.
C. obovata Hook. BLUE-WOOD. TEXAN LOGWOOD.
This plant is a shrub of San Antonio, Texas and westward. The
small, deep red berry is acidulous, edible and is used in jellies.
C. spathulata A. Gray.
The berries are similar to those of C. obovata.
Conferva sp. Confervae.
Green cakes are made of the slimy river confervae in Japan, which,
pressed and dried, are used as food.
Conium maculatum Linn. Umbelliferae. HERB BENNET. POISON
Europe and the Orient.
Poison hemlock has become naturalized in
northeastern America from Europe. Although poisonous, says
Carpenter, in the south of England, it is comparatively harmless in
London and is eaten as a potherb by the peasants of Russia.
Conopodium denudatum Koch. Umbelliferae. ARNUT. EARTH
CHESTNUT. JURNUT. KIPPERNUT. PIGNUT.
The small, tuberous roots of this herb, when boiled or
roasted, are available for food and are known as earth chestnuts. In
England, says Don, the tubers are frequently dug and eaten by
children. When boiled, they are very pleasant. The roots, says Johnson,
are edible but are little eaten in England except by children.
Convolvulus arvensis Linn. Convolvulaceae. FIELD BINDWEED.
Old World tropics, middle Asia and naturalized in America from
Europe. This plant gives its flavor to the liquor called noyeau, imported
from Martinique, according to Lindley. It reached Philadelphia in 1876
in the packing of exhibits at the Centennial.
Copaifera coleosperma Benth. Leguminosae.
The aril is used in preparing a nourishing drink.
C. hymenaeifolia Moric.
This species is said to be the mosibe of eastern tropical Africa, a
tree which yields a red-skinned, fattening, bean-like seed.
Corchorus acutangulus Lam. Tiliaceae.
Cosmopolitan tropics. This plant is the papau ockroe of the Barbados
and is eaten by the negroes as a salad and potherb.
C. antichorus Raeusch.
Old World tropics.
The whole plant is boiled as a potherb.
C. capsularis Linn. JUTE.
This plant is extensively cultivated in Bengal for
its fiber, which forms one of the jutes of commerce so extensively
exported from Calcutta. It was introduced into the United States shortly
before 1870 and placed under experimental culture, and, in 1873,
favorable reports of its success came from many of the southern states.
The young shoots are much used as a potherb in Egypt and in India.
C. olitorius Linn. CORCHORUS. JEW'S MALLOW.
This plant yields some of the jute of commerce
but is better known as a plant of the kitchen in tropical countries. It is
cultivated in Egypt, India and in France. In Aleppo, it is grown by the
Jews, hence the name, Jew's mallow. The leaves are used as a potherb.
It is mentioned by Pliny among Egyptian potherbs, and Alpinus, 1592,
says that no herb is more commonly used among the Egyptian foods.
Forskal also mentions its cultivation in Egypt and notes it among the
cultivated esculents of Arabia. In India, it occurs wild and the leaves are
gathered and eaten as spinach. In tropical Africa, it is both
spontaneous and cultivated as a vegetable and it is in the vegetable
gardens of Mauritius. In Jamaica, the plant is frequently met with in
gardens but has, in a great measure, ceased to be cultivated, although
the leaves are used as a spinach. It is now cultivated in French gardens
for its young leaves, which are eaten in salads. It is recorded by Burr as
in American gardens in 1863 but the plant seems not to have been
mentioned by other writers as growing in this country.
C. procumbens Boj.
This plant was carried to the Mauritius where it is
cultivated in kitchen gardens.
C. siliquosus Linn. BROOM-WEED.
This plant is called te by the inhabitants of Panama
who use its leaves as a tea substitute.
C. tridens Linn.
It is used as a potherb in Egypt.
C. trilocularis Linn.
Old World tropics.
In Arabia this plant is used as a potherb. It is used
as a potherb in Sennaar and Cordova, where it is native.
Cordia collococca Linn. Boragineae. CLAMMY CHERRY.
The fruit is red, with a sweetish pulp and is edible.
C. loureiri Roem. et Schult.
The drupe is red, small, acid and edible.
C. myxa Linn. ASSYRIAN PLUM. SELU.
Tropical Asia and Australia.
The tender, young fruit is eaten as a
vegetable and is pickled in India. The ripe fruit is also eaten. The kernel
tastes somewhat like a filbert and that of the cultivated tree is better.
C. obliqua Willd.
The young fruit is pickled and is also eaten as a
C. rothii Roem. et Schult.
The fruit is eaten.
C. sebestena Linn.
The plant bears a mucilaginous, edible fruit. Nuttall
says it has been observed growing at Key West, Florida.
C. vestita Hook. f. & Thorns.
The fruit is filled with a gelatinous pulp, which is
eaten and is preferred to that of C. myxa.
Cordyline (Dracaena) indivisa Steud. Liliaceae. DRACAENA. TI.
The berries are eaten by the New Zealanders.
C. (Dracaena) terminalis Kunth. DRACAENA. TI.
Tropical Asia and Australia.
This plant, common in the islands of the
Papuan Archipelago, is there cultivated. In the Samoan Islands, some
20 varieties, mostly edible, are distinguished by name. The thick, fleshy
roots contain large quantities of saccharine matter and, when baked,
become very agreeable to the taste. The baked ti root, says Ellis,
macerated in water, is fermented and then a very intoxicating liquor is
obtained from it by distillation. The large, tuberous roots are eaten by
the natives of Viti. The tuberous root often weighs from 10 to 14
pounds and, after being baked on hot stoves, much resembles in taste
and degree of sweetness stock licorice. The Fijians chew it, or use it to
sweeten puddings. The root is roasted and eaten.
Coriandrum sativum Linn. Umbelliferae. CORIANDER.
Southern Europe and the Orient.
The seeds of this plant were used as a
spice by the Jews and the Romans. The plant was well known in Britain
prior to the Norman conquest and was employed in ancient English
medicine and cookery. Coriander was cultivated in American gardens
prior to 1670. The seeds are carminative and aromatic and are used for
flavoring, in confectionery and also by distillers. The young leaves are
put into soups and salads. In the environs of Bombay, the seeds are
much used by the Musselmans in their curries. They are largely used
by the natives of India as a condiment and with betelnuts and pau
leaves. In Burma, the seeds are used as a condiment in curries. The ripe
fruits of coriander have served as a spice and a seasoning from very
remote times, its seeds having been found in Egyptian tombs of the
twenty-first dynasty; a thousand or so years later, Pliny says the best
coriander came to Italy from Egypt. Cato, in the third century before
Christ, recommends coriander as a seasoning; Columella, in the first
century of our era and Palladius, in the third, direct its planting. The
plant was well known in Britain prior to the Norman conquest and was
carried to Massachusetts before 1670. In China, it can be identified in
an agricultural treatise of the fifth century and is classed as cultivated
by later writers of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In Cochin
China, it is recorded as less grown than in China. In India, it is largely
used by the natives as a condiment. Coriander has reached Paraguay
and is in especial esteem for condimental purposes in some parts of
Peru. Notwithstanding this extended period of cultivation, no indication
of varieties under cultivation is found.
Coriaria nepalensis Wall. Coriarieae. TANNER'S TREE.
Himalayan region and China.
Brandis says the fruit is eaten but is said
to cause thirst or colic. J. Smith says the fruit is eaten and is not
C. ruscifolia Linn. DEU.
Peru and Chili.
The baccate, fructiferous perianth yields a palatable,
purple juice, which is much liked by the natives and from which a kind
of wine may be made, but the seeds are poisonous.
C. sannentosa Forst. f. WINEBERRY.
The fruit affords a refreshing wine to the natives but the
seeds are poisonous. It is called tutu.
Cornus amomum Mill. Cornaceae. KINNIKINNIK.
In Louisiana, this plant is said by Rafinesque to have
black fruit very good to eat.
C. canadensis Linn. BUNCHBERRY. DWARF CARNEL.
This species occurs from Pennsylvania to Labrador on
the east and to Sitka on the northwest. The scarlet berries are well
known to children, being pleasant but without much taste. They are
sometimes made into puddings.
C. capitata Wall.
This plant was introduced into English gardens
about 1833 as an ornamental. The fruit is sweetish, mingled with a
little bitter taste, and is eaten and made into preserves in India.
C. macrophylla Wall. LARGE-LEAVED DOGWOOD.
Himalayan region, China and Japan.
The round, smooth, small berries
are eaten in India.
C. mas Linn. CORNELIAN CHERRY. CORNUS. SORBET.
Europe and Asia Minor.
The cornelian cherry was formerly cultivated
for its fruits which were used in tarts. There are a number of varieties.
De Candolle mentions one with a yellow fruit. Duhamel says there are
three varieties in France and Germany; one with wax-colored fruit,
another with white fruit and a third with fleshy, round fruit. Don says
the fruit is gratefully acid and is called sorbet by the Turks. A. Smith
says the harsh, acid fruits are scarcely eatable but are sold in the
markets in some parts of Germany to be eaten by children or made into
sweetmeats and tarts. J. Smith says the fruit is of a cornelian color, of
the size of a small plum, not very palatable, but is eaten in some parts
as a substitute for olives; it is also preserved, is used in confectionery
and, in Turkey, serves as a flavoring for sherbets. In Norway, the flowers
are used for flavoring distilled spirits.
C. sanguinea Linn. CORNEL DOGWOOD. DOGBERRY. DOGWOOD.
Europe and northern Asia.
The fruit is said to contain a large quantity
of oil used for the table and in brewing.
C. stolonifera (sericea) Michx. RED-OSIER.
Thoreau found the bark in use by the Indians of Maine
for smoking, under the name magnoxigill, Indian tobacco. Nuttall says
the fruit, though bitter and unpalatable, is eaten by the Indians of the
C. suecica Linn. KINNIKINNIK.
The berries are gathered in the autumn by the western
Eskimo and preserved by being frozen in wooden boxes out of which
they are cut with an axe. In central New York, this plant is called
kinnikinnik by the Indians.
Correa alba Andr. Rutaceae
Henfrey says the leaves are used by the Australian settlers for
Corydalis bulbosa DC. Papaveraceae/Fumariaceae. FUMEWORT.
This species has a tuberous root, which, when boiled,
furnishes the Kalmuck Tartars with a starchy substance much eaten by
Corylus americana Walt. Cupuliferae (Corylaceae). HAZELNUT.
This species bears well-flavored nuts but they are
smaller and thicker shelled than the European hazel. The nuts are
extensively gathered as a food by the Indians in some places.
C. avellana Linn. COBNUT. FILBERT. HAZELNUT.
Europe and Asia Minor.
This species includes not only the hazelnut but
all of the European varieties of filbert. It was cultivated by the Romans,
and Pliny says the name is derived from Abellina in Asia, supposed to
be the valley of Damascus. Pliny adds that it had been brought into
Greece from Pontus, hence it was also called nux pontica. The nut was
called by Theophrastus, keraclotic nuts, from Heraclea - now
Ponderachi - on the Asiatic shore of the Black Sea. These names
probably refer to particular varieties as the species is common in
Europe and adjoining Asia. In Peacham's Emblems, we find it stated
that the name filbert is derived from Philibert, a king of France, who
caused by arte sundry kinds to be brought forth. There are a number
of varieties. The best nuts come from Spain and are known as
Barcelona nuts. Cobnuts and filberts are largely grown in Kent,
England. In Kazan, Russia, the nuts are so plentiful that an oil used as
food is expressed from them. Filberts were among the seeds mentioned
in the Memorandum of Mar. 16, 1629, to be sent to the Massachusetts
Company and are now to be occasionally found in gardens in Virginia
C. columa Linn. COBNUT.
Eastern Europe, Asia Minor and Himalayan region.
furnishes the imported cobnuts of Britain. The kernels form an
important article of food in some parts of the hills of India. The nuts are
known in England as cobnuts or Turkish nuts. This tree was carried
from Pontus to Macedonia and Thrace and has been distributed
throughout Italy. It was brought to Germany in the sixteenth century.
C. ferox Wall.
This species bears a small, thick-shelled nut, in taste
like the common hazel.
C. rostrata Ait. BEAKED HAZELNUT.
The plant bears a well-flavored nut.
C. tubulosa Willd. LAMBERT'S NUT. LOMBARDY-NUT.
Asia Minor and Southern Europe.
This species furnishes the Lombardy,
or Lambert's nut.
Corynocarpus laevigata Forst. Anacardiaceae (Corynocarpaceae). NEW ZEALAND LAUREL.
New Zealand. The pulp of the drupe of this tree is edible, but the
embryo is considered poisonous until steeped in salt water. Bennett
says it is valued for its fruit and seeds, the former of the size of a plum,
pulpy in the interior and sweet. The seeds are used in times of scarcity
and contain a tasteless, farinaceous substance. The new seeds are,
however, poisonous until steamed for a day and soaked.
Corypha gebanga Blume. Palmae. GEBANG PALM.
The pithy substance of the trunk yields a sort of sago.
Costus speciosus Sm. Scitamineae (Costaceae). WILD GINGER.
East Indies and Malay.
Ainslie says the natives of India preserve the
root and deem it very wholesome. Lunan says the roots of wild ginger
are sometimes used as ginger but are not as good. Browne says this
species is found everywhere in the woods of Jamaica.
Cotyledon edulis Brewer. Crassulaceae.
The young leaves are eaten by the Indians.
C. spinosa Linn.
The leaves are agreeably acid and are eaten.
C. umbilicus Linn. NAVELWORT.
Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia.
This plant is classed by
Loudon as a spinach.
Couepia chrysocalyx Benth. Rosaceae (Chrysobalanaceae).
This beautiful tree is said by Mr. Spruce to grow plentifully
along the Amazon River from the Barra upward. The Indians plant it
near their houses for the sake of its edible fruits.
C. guianensis Aubl.
The seed is edible. The fruit contains a sweet oil like that of the
Couma utilis Muell. Apocynaceae.
This species bears a fruit known as couma which is said by
Bates to be delicious. The fruit is a berry containing several seeds
embedded in a pulp.
Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Myrtaceae (Lecythidaceae).
Guiana and Cayenne.
The pulp of the fruit is vinous, white, acid and