Cyamopsis psoraloides DC. Leguminosae.
This species is cultivated about Bombay for the sake of the
pods which are eaten like French beans, and is grown also by the
natives of Burma who esteem it a good vegetable. Wight "says" the
young beans are with reason much prized by the natives as a culinary
pulse and merit more attention from Europeans, as they are a pleasant
and delicate vegetable."
Cyanella capensis Linn. Haemodoraceae (Techophilaeaceae).
A kind of onion is obtained from this plant and roasted for
the table by the farmers of Kaffraria.
Cyathea dealbata Swartz. Cyatheaceae. SILVERY TREE-FERN.
The pith of this tree-fern is said to be eaten in New Zealand.
C. medullaris Swartz. BLACK-STEMMED TREE-FERN.
The pith of this plant, a coarse sago, is eaten in times of scarcity in New
In the Voyage of the Novara it is said that the whole stalk,
often 20 feet high, is edible and is sufficient to maintain a considerable
number of persons. The pith, when cooked and dried in the sun, is an
excellent substitute for sago. It is also to be found in Queensland and
the Pacific isles.
Cycas circinalis Linn. Cycadaceae. SAGO PALM.
Tropical eastern Asia and the Malayan Archipelago.
speaks of the inhabitants of Prince Island eating the nuts, which
poisoned his hogs and made some of the crew sick. He adds, however,
that they are sliced and dried and after steeping in fresh water for three
minutes and dried a second time they are eaten in times of scarcity as a
food, mixed with rice. In Malabar, Drury says a kind of sago prepared
from the nuts is much used by the poorer classes. Pickering says on the
Comoro Islands it is a common esculent; Blanco says on the Philippines
its fruit is sometimes eaten; Rumphius says it is eaten on the Moluccas;
J. Smith 5 says a kind of sago is obtained from the stem.
C. revoluta Thunb.
Thunberg says a small morsel of the pith of the
stem is sufficient to sustain life a long time and on that account the
plant is jealously preserved for the use of the Japanese army. The
drupes are also eaten. J. Smith says it occurs also in China and New
Cyclopia genistoides Vent. Leguminosae. BUSH TEA.
South Africa. An infusion of its leaves is used as a tea.
C. subternata Vog.
This is also a tea substitute, according to Church.
Cymbidium canaliculatum R. Br. Orchideae.
The tubers of this plant are used by the blacks of Wide Bay.
Cymopterus fendleri A. Gray. Umbelliferae.
Texas and New Mexico.
This plant emits, when in decoction, a
peculiarly strong and pleasant odor. It is sometimes used as a stuffing
C. glomeratus DC.
Western states of North America.
The root is edible.
C. montanus Torr. & Gray. GAMOTE.
Western North America.
This plant is called by the Mexicans gamote or
camote. The root is spindle-shaped, parsnip-like but much softer,
sweeter and more tender than the parsnip. This root is collected largely
by the Mexicans and also by the Ute and Piute Indians.
Cynara cardunculus Linn. Compositae. ARTICHOKE. CARDOON.
Mediterranean region and common in its wild form in southern Europe
and a portion of central Asia.
Cardoon was known, according to
Targioni-Tozzetti, to the ancient Romans and was cultivated for the leafstalks
which were eaten. Some commentators say that both the Greeks
and Romans procured this vegetable from the coast of Africa, about
Carthage, and also from Sicily. Dioscorides mentions it. Pliny says it
was much esteemed in Rome and obtained a higher price than any
other garden herb. In more recent times, Ruellius, 1536, speaks of the
use of the herb as a food, after the manner of asparagus. Matthiolus,
1558, says there are many varieties in the gardens which are commonly
called cardoni by the Etruscans, and that, diligently cultivated, these
are tender, crisp, and white and are eaten with salt and pepper. The
plant is mentioned by Parkinson, 1629, under the name of Cardus
esculentus but its introduction into England is stated to have been in
1656 or 1658.
Cardoon is now cultivated in but few English gardens. On the continent
of Europe, it is regarded as a wholesome esculent and in France is
much used, the stalks of the inner leaves, rendered crisp and tender by
blanching, serving as a salad. Five varieties are esteemed there.
Townsend, in his tour through Spain mentions that in some parts of
that country they never use rennet for cheese but substitute the down
of this plant from which they make an infusion. In the present day, the
flowers of cardoon are carefully dried and used for the same purpose.
McMahon includes it in his list of American esculents in 1806 and says
"it has been a long time used for culinary purposes, such as for salads,
soups and stewing. Thorburn includes it in his seed catalogs of 1828"
and 1882. In the Banda Oriental, says Darwin, very many, probably
several hundred, square miles are covered by one mass of these prickly
plants and are impenetrable by man or beast. Over the undulating
plains where these great beds occur, nothing else can now live.
Vilmorin describes five varieties: the Cordon de Tours, the Cordon plein
inerme, the Cordon d'Espagne, the Cardan Puvis, and the Cordon a
The first of these, the Cordon de Tours, is very spiny and we may
reasonably believe it tc be the sort figured by Matthiolus, 1598, under
the name of Carduus aculeatus. It is named in French works on
gardening in 1824, 1826 and 1829. Its English name is Prickly-Solid
cardoon; in Spain it is called Cardo espinoso. It holds first place in the
estimation of the market gardeners of Tours and Paris.
The Cordon plein inerme is scarcely spiny, is a little larger than the
preceding but otherwise closely resembles it. J. Bauhin had never seen
spineless cardoons. It is spoken of in 1824 in French books on
gardening. It is called, in England, Smooth-Solid cardoon and has also
names in Germany, Italy and Spain.
The Cordon d'Espagne is very large and not spiny and is principally
grown in the southern portions of Europe. We may resonably speculate
that this is the sort named by Pliny as coming from Cordoba. Cordons
d'Espagne have their cultivation described in Le Jardinier Solitaire,
1612. A "Spanish cardoon" is described by Townsend in England,
1726, and the same name is used by McMahon in America, 1806. This
is the Cynara integrifolia of Vahl.
The Cordon Puvis, or Artichoke-leaved, is spineless and is grown
largely in the vicinity of Lyons, France. It finds mention in the French
books on gardening of 1824 and 1829, as previously enumerated.
The Cordon a cotes rouges, or Red-stemmed, is so named from having
the ribs tinged with red. It is called a recent sort by Burr in 1863.
From a botanical point of view we have two types in these plants, the
armed and the unarmed; but these characters are by no means to be
considered as very constant, as in the Smooth-Solid we have an
intermediate form. From an olericultural point of view, we have but one
type throughout but a greater or less perfection. A better acquaintance
with the wild forms would, doubtless, show to us the prototypes of the
variety differences as existing in nature.
The artichoke is a cultivated form of cardoon. To the ancient Romans, it
was known only in the shape of cardoon. It seems quite certain that
there is no description in Dioscorides and Theophrastus, among the
Greeks, nor in Columella, Palladius and Pliny, among the Romans, but
that can with better grace be referred to the cardoon than to the
artichoke. To the writers of the sixteenth century, the artichoke and its
uses were well known. Le Jardinier Solitaire, an anonymous work
published in 1612, recommends three varieties for the garden. In Italy,
the first record of the artichoke cultivated for the receptacle of the
flowers was at Naples, in the beginning or middle of the fifteenth
century. It was thence carried to Florence in 1466 and at Venice,
Ermolao Barbaro who died as late as 1493, knew of only a single plant
grown as a novelty in a private garden, although it soon after became a
staple article of food over a great part of the peninsula. In France, three
varieties are commonly grown. It seems to have been unknown in
England, says Booth, until introduced from Italy in 1548 and is even
now but little grown there, yet in France it is highly esteemed. In the
United States, in 1806, McMahon mentions two species, C. scolymus,
or French, and C. hortensis, or Globe. Of the second, he mentions two
varieties. In 1818, the artichoke is mentioned by Gardiner and
Hepburn and also by John Randolph of Virginia; in 1828, by
Fessenden; and in 1832 by Bridge-man, who names two kinds. In
1828, Thorburn offers in his catalog the seeds of the Green Globe and
in 1882 of the French Green Globe and the Large Paris. The parts used
are the lower parts of the leaves or scales of the calyx and the fleshy
receptacles of the flowers freed from the bristles and seed down. In
France, where it is much esteemed, the tender, central leaf-stalk is
blanched and eaten like cardoons.
The most prominent distinction between varieties as grown in the
garden, is the presence or absence of spines. Although J. Bauhin, 1651,
says that seed from the same plant may produce both sorts, probably
this comes from cross-fertilization between the kinds, and the absence
or presence of spines is a true distinction. Pragus describes both forms
in 1552, as do the majority of succeeding writers.
A second division is made from the form of the heads, the conicalheaded
and the globe.
Of the varieties sufficiently described by Vilmorin, four belong to this
class and they are all spiny. This form seems to constitute the French
artichoke of English writers. The following synonymy seems justifiable:
Scolymus. Trag. 866. 1552. cum ic.
Carduus, vulgo Carciofi. I. Matth. 322. 1558.
Carduus aculeatus. Cam. Epit. 438. 1586. cum ic; Matth. ed. of 1598.
496. cum ic.
Thistle, or Prickly Artichoke. Lyte's Dod. 603. 1586.
Cinara sylvestris. Ger. 291. 1597. fig.
Carduus sive Scolymus sativus, spinosos. Bauh. J. 3:48. 1651. cum
Artichokes, Violet. Quintyne 187; 1693; 178. 1704.
Conical-headed Green French. Mawe 1778.
French Artichoke. Mill. Diet. 1807; Amer. Gard. Books 1806, 1819,
1828, 1832, etc.
Vert de Provence. Vilm. 16. 1883.
De Roscoff. Vilm. 1. c.
De Saint Laud. oblong. Vilm. 1. c.
Sucre de Genes. Vilm. 1. c.
To this form belong two of Vilmorin's varieties and various other
varieties as described by other writers. The synonymy which seems to
Scolymus. Fuch. 792. 1542. cum ic.
Cardui alterum genus. Trag. 866. 1552.
Carduus, vulgo Carciofi. II. Matth. 322. 1558.
Carduus non aculeatus. Cam. Epit. 437. 1586. cum ic.; Matth. 497.
1598. cum ic.
Right artichoke. Lyte's Dod. 603. 1586.
Cinara maxima ex Anglia delata. Lob. Icon. 2:3. 1591.
Cinara maxima alba. Ger. 991. 1597. fig.
Cinara maxima anglica. Ger. 1. c.
Green or White. Quintyne 187. 1593; 178. 1704.
Red. Quintyne 1. c.
Globular-headed Red Dutch. Mawe 1778.
Globe Artichoke. Mill. Diet. 1807; Amer. Gard. Books 1806, 1819,
Gros vert de Laon. Vilm. 1883.
Violet de Provence. Vilm. 1. c.
The color of the heads also found mention in the early writers. In the
first division, the green is mentioned by Tragus, 1552; by Mawe, 1778;
and by Miller's Dictionary, 1807; the purple by Quintyne, 1693. In the
Globe class, the white is named by Gerarde, 1597; and by Quintyne,
1693; and the red by Gerarde, 1597; by Quintyne, 1693; and by Mawe,
1778; and Parkinson, 1629, named the red and the white.
The so-called wild plants of the herbalists seem to offer like variations to
those we have noted in the cultivated forms, but the difficulty of
identification renders it inexpedient to state a fixed conclusion. The
heads are certainly no larger now than they were 250 years ago, for the
Hortus Eystettensis figures one 15 inches in diameter. The long period
during which the larger part of the present varieties have been known
seems to justify the belief that modern origination has not been
frequent. Le Jardinier Solitaire, 1612, describes early varieties, le
blanc, le rouge and le violet. Worlidge, 1683, says there are several
kinds, and he names the tender and the hardy sort. McMahon names
the French and two varieties of the Globe in America in 1806. In 1824,
in France, there were the blanc, rouge, violet and the gros vert de Laon.
Petit 1826, adds Sucre de genes to the list. Noisette, 1829, adds the
camus de Brittany.
The name given by Ruellius to the artichoke in France, 1536, is
articols, from the Italian articoclos. He says it comes from arcocum of
the Ligurians, cocali signifying the cone of the pine. The Romans call it
carchiophos. The plant and the name came to France from Italy.
C. integrifolia Vahl. SPANISH CARDOON.
The plants are of large size, the midribs being very succulent
Cynoglossum sp. Boragineae. HOUND'S TONGUE.
Hooker says one species is used as a potherb.
Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Leguminosae. NAM-NAM.
East Indies and Malays.
The fruit in shape resembles a kidney. It is
about three inches long and the outside is very rough. It is seldom
eaten raw but, fried with batter, it makes a good fritter. Wight says the
fruit is much esteemed in the Eastern Islands.
Cyperus bulbosus Vahl. Cyperaceae.
Africa and East Indies.
Drury says the roots are used as flour in times
of scarcity in India and are eaten roasted or boiled, tasting like
potatoes. Royle says they are palatable.
C. esculentus Linn. CHUFA. EARTH ALMOND. ZULU NUTS.
South Europe and north Africa;
introduced in America and now runs
wild on the banks of the Delaware and other rivers from Pennsylvania to
Carolina. The roots are very sweet and are eaten by children. The chufa
was distributed from the United States Patent Office in 1854 and has
received a spasmodic culture in gardens. It is much cultivated in
southern Europe, Asia and Africa, becoming of importance at Valence,
in Galicia, and in the environs of Rosetta and Damietta, Egypt. In
Hungary, it is grown for the seeds, to be used as a coffee substitute, but
in general for its tubers which are sweet, nutty and palatable. These
bulbs, says Bryant, are greatly esteemed in Italy and some parts of
Germany and are frequently brought to table by way of dessert. At
Constantinople, the tubers appear in the markets and are eaten raw or
made into a conserve. Gerarde, 1633, speaks of their extensive use in
Italy, and of their being hawked about the streets and, at Verona, eaten
as dainties. They now appear in the English markets under the name of
Zulu nuts. The chufa must also have been esteemed in ancient times,
for tubers have been found in Egyptian tombs of the twelfth dynasty, or
from 2200 to 2400 years before Christ. Notwithstanding the long
continued culture of this plant, there are no varieties described.
C. papyrus Linn. PAPYRUS.
Sicily, Syria and tropical Africa.
This plant is the ancient papyrus. Hogg
says it was used as food by the ancients, who chewed it either raw,
boiled or roasted, for the sake of its sweet juice.
C. rotundus Linn. NUT GRASS.
The tubers are eaten by the North American Indians.
Cyphia sp.? Campanulaceae.
South Africa. The Hottentots are said to eat the tuberous roots of at
least one species of these herbaceous, twining plants.
C. digitata Wild.
The roots are bulbous, esculent, and fleshy.2
Cyphomandra hartwegi Sendt. Solanaceae.
New Granda. The berry is reddish, about the size of a pigeon's egg and
is two-celled. It appears to be the fruit sold in the markets of Lima,
where it is commonly used for cooking in lieu of the ordinary tomato,
the flavor of which it resembles. Tweddie says it is used in Buenos
Cytisus scoparius Link. Leguminosae, BROOM. SCOTCH BROOM.
Before the introduction of hops, says Johnson, broom
tops were often used to communicate a slightly bitter flavor to beer. The
young flower-buds are occasionally pickled and used as a substitute
for capers. The seeds, when roasted, are used as a coffee substitute in