Dacrydium cupressinum Soland. Coniferae (Podocarpaceae).
IMOU PINE. RED PINE. RIMU.
A lofty tree of New Zealand.
The fleshy cup of the nut is eatable, and a
beverage like spruce-beer is made from its young shoots.
Dahlia variabilis Desf. Compositae. DAHLIA.
The dahlia was first introduced into Spain in 1787, and three
specimens reached Paris in 1802. Its petals may be used in salads. It
was first cultivated for its tubers but these were found to be uneatable.
Daphne oleoides Schreb. Thymelaeaceae. DAPHNE.
Europe and Asia Minor.
The berries are eaten but are said to cause
nausea and vomiting. On the Sutlej a spirit is distilled from them.
Dasylirion texanum Scheele. Liliaceae (Agavaceae).
The bases of the leaves and the young stems are full of
nutritious pulp which supplies, when cooked, a useful and palatable
Datura metel Linn. Solanaceae. DOWNY THORNAPPLE.
This species grows abundantly along the Colorado
River in Arizona. The Mohaves gather the leaves and roots, bruise and
mix them with water and then let the mixture stand several hours after
which the liquid is drawn off. The product is a highly narcotic drink
producing a stupefying effect which it is not easy to remove. The
Mohaves will often drink this nauseating liquid, as they are fond of any
kind of intoxication.
D. sanguinea Ruiz & Pav.
The Peruvians prepare an intoxicating beverage from
the seeds, which induces stupefaction and furious delirium if partaken
of in large quantities. The Arabs of central Africa are said by Burton to
Dry the leaves, the flowers and the rind of the rootlets, the latter being
considered the strongest preparation, and smoke them in a common
bowl or in a waterpipe. It is esteemed by them a sovereign remedy for
asthma and influenza.
Daucus carota Linn. Umbelliferae. CARROT.
Europe and the adjoining portions of Asia and introduced in North and
South America, China and Cochin China.
The root, says Don, is
slender, aromatic and sweetish. The roots are employed in the Hebrides
as an article of food, being eaten raw, and are collected by the young
women for distribution as dainties among their acquaintances on
Sundays and at their dances. This wild plant is the original of the
cultivated carrot, for, by cultivation and selection, Vilmorin-Andrieux
obtained in the space of three years roots as fleshy and as large as those
of the garden carrot from the thin, wiry roots of the wild species. Carrots
are now cultivated throughout Europe and in Paris are a most popular
vegetable. In some regions, sugar has been made from them but its
manufacture was not found profitable. In Germany, a substitute for
coffee has been made of carrots chopped up into small pieces and
browned. In Sweden, carrots grow as high as latitude 66� to 67� north.
In Asia, the carrots of the Mahratta and Mysore countries are
considered to be of especially fine quality.
The carrot and the parsnip, if known to them, seem to have been
confounded in the description by the ancients, and we find little
evidence that the cultivated carrot was known to the Greek writers, to
whom the wild carrot was certainly known. The ancient writers usually
gave prominence to the medical efficacy of herbs; and if our supposition
is correct that their carrots were of the wild form, we have evidence of
the existence of the yellow and red roots in nature, the prototypes of
these colors now found in our cultivated varieties. Pliny says: "They
cultivate a plant in Syria like staphylinos, the wild carrot, which some
call gingidium, yet more slender and more bitter, and of the same
properties, which is eaten cooked or raw, and is of great service as a
stomachic; also a fourth kind, resembling a pastinaca somewhat, called
by us Gallicam, but by the Greeks daucon." This comparison with a
parsnip and also the name is suggestive of the cultivated carrot. Galen,
a Greek physician of the second century, implies cultivation of the
carrot when he says the root of the wild carrot is less fit to be eaten than
that of the domestic. In the thirteenth century, however, Albertus
Magnus treats of the plants under field culture, garden culture,
orchard culture and vineyard culture, and yet, while naming the
parsnip, makes no mention of the carrot - if the word pastinaca really
means the parsnip. One may believe, however, that the pastinaca of
Albertus Magnus is the carrot for, in the sixteenth century, Ammonius
gives the name for the carrot pastenei, as applying to Pastinaca sativa
and agrestis. Barbarus, who died in 1493, and Virgil both describe the
carrot under the name pastinaca; and Apicius, a writer on cookery in
the third century, gives directions for preparing the Carota sen
pastinaca, which can apply only to the carrot. Dioscorides uses the
word carota as applying to Pastinaca silvestris in the first century.
Columella and Palladius both mention the pastinaca as a garden plant
but say nothing that cannot better apply to the carrot than to the
parsnip. Macer Floridus also treats of what may be the carrot under
pastinaca and says no roots afford better food.
Hence, we believe that the carrot was cultivated by the ancients but was
not a very general food-plant and did not attain the modern
appreciation; that the word pastinaca, or cariotam, or carota, in those
times was applied to both the cultivated and the wild form; and we
suspect that the word Gallicam, used by Pliny in the first century,
indicates that the cultivated root reached Italy from France, where now
it is in such exaggerated esteem.
The siasron of Dioscorides and the siser of Columella and Pliny may
have been a form of the carrot but we can attain no certainty from the
Descriptions. The fact that the grouping of the roots which occurs in the
skirret, into which authors translate siser, is not mentioned by the
ancients - a distinction almost too important to be overlooked - and
that the short carrot was called siser by botanists of the sixteenth
century, are arguments in favor of siser being a carrot. On the other
hand, we should scarcely expect a distinction being made between
pastinaca and siser, were both as similar in the plant as are the two
forms of carrot at present.
The carrot is now found under cultivation and as an escape throughout
a large portion of the world. In China, it is noticed in the Yuan dynasty,
as brought from western Asia, 1280-1368, and is classed as a kitchen
vegetable in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by
various Chinese authors. In India, the carrot is said to have come first
from Persia and is now cultivated in abundance in the Mahratta and
Mysore countries. The carrot is enumerated among the edible plants of
Japan by Thunberg and earlier by Kaempfer. The kind now described
by a Japanese authority is an inch and a half in diameter at the crown,
nearly two feet and a half long, and of a high color. The carrot is now
cultivated in the Mauritius, where also it has become spontaneous. It is
recorded in Arabia by Forskal and was seen growing - both the yellow
and the red - by Rauwolf at Aleppo in the sixteenth century. In
Europe, its culture was mentioned by nearly all of the herbalists and by
writers on gardening subjects, the red or purple kind finding mention
by Ruellius, 1536. In England, the yellow and dark red, both long
forms, are noticed by Gerarde, 1597, and the species is supposed to
have been introduced by the Dutch in 1558. In the Surveyors'
Dialogue, 1604, it is stated that carrot roots are then grown in England
and sometimes by farmers. In the New World, carrots are mentioned at
Margarita Island by Hawkins, 1565 (and this implies that they were
well known in England at this date); are mentioned in Brazil, 1647; in
Virginia, 1609 and 1648; and in Massachusetts, 1629. In 1779,
carrots were among the Indian foods destroyed by General Sullivan
near Geneva, New York. So fond of carrots are the Flathead Indians, of
Oregon, that the children cannot forbear stealing them from the fields,
although honest as regards other articles.
TYPES OF CARROTS.
The types of modem carrot are the tap-rooted and the premorse-rooted
with a number of subtypes, which are very distinct in appearance. The
synonymy, in part, is as below:
I. THE LONG, TAPER-POINTED FORMS.
Pastinaca saliva prima. Fuch. 682. 1542.
Moren. Roeszl. 106. 1550.
Staphylinus. Trag. 442. 1552.
Carota. Cam. Epit. 509. 1586 (very highly improved); Matth. 549.
Pastinaca sativa Diosc. Daucus Theophrasti. Lob. Icon. 1:720. 1591.
Pastinaca sativa tenuifolia. Ger. 872. 1597.
Pastinaca sativa rubens. Dod. 678. 1616.
Long yellows, red, and whites of modern culture.
THE HALF-LONG, TAPER-POINTED FORMS.
Pastinaca saliva altera. Fuch. 683. 1542.
Siser. Matth. Comment. 242. 1558; Pin. 147. 1561.
Siser alterum. Cam. Epit. 227. 1586.
Carota. Dur. C. 95. 1617.
Blanche des Vosges. Vilm. 70. 1883.
Danvers Half-long of American gardens.
The premorse forms offer a number of subtypes which are very distinct,
some being nearly spherical, others cylindrical, and yet others tapering,
but all ending abruptly at the base, the tap-root starting from a flat, or
nearly flat, surface. This appearance seems to be modem.
The spherical.-The earliest mention of this type is in France in 1824,
1826 and 1829, as the Cowte de Pollande. It is figured by Decaisne and
Naudin, and, in a more improved form, by Vilmorin in 1883.
The cylindrical.- The carrots of this type are remarkably distinct and
have foi types the Carentan and the Coreless of Vilmorin. The first was
in American seed-catalogs in 1878.
The tapering.-A number of varieties belong to this class, of which the
Early Horn is the type. This was mentioned for American gardens by
McMahon, 1806, and by succeeding authors.
In view of the confusion in early times in the naming of the carrot, it is
Desirable to offer a list of the names used by various authors, with the
Dates. The first, or long carrot, was called in England, carot, Lyte, 1586:
In France, carota, Ruel, 1536; carottes; pastenades, Pin., 1561;
pastenade jaune, pastenade rouge, Lyte, 1586; carotte, racine jaune,
Ger., 1597: In Germany, Pastenei, Ammon., 1539; Pastiney
Pastinachen, Fuch., 1542; geel Ruben, rohte Ruben, weissen Ruben,
Trag., 1552; Mohren, Rosz., 1550; Moren, Pin., 1561; gelbe Ruben,
weissen Ruben, Rauwolf, 1582; rot Mohren, weisse Mohren, Cam.,
1586: In Dutch, geel peen, pooten, geel mostilen, caroten, Lyte, 1586:
In Italy, carota, Pin., 1561; carota and carotola, Cam., 1586;
pastinaca, Ger., 1597; Dod., 1616: In Spain, canahoria, Ger., 1597;
and pastenagues, cenoura, Dod., 1616.
The half-long, taper-pointed carrot was called siser by Matthiolus in
1558: In France, carottes blanche, Pin. 1561; but his other names
applicable to the skirret are the chervy, giroles or carottes blanches,
Cam. Epit. 1586: In Germany, Gierlin or Girgellin, Cam. 1586: In Italy,
carota bianca, Cam. 1586; carotta, carocola, Dur. C. 1617: In Spain,
chirivias. Camerarius, 1586, says they were planted in gardens and
even in fields throughout Germany and Bohemia.
The various forms of the carrot have probably their prototypes in
nature but as yet the evidence is a little deficient. We may suspect the
general resemblance of the Altringham to the Japanese variety, already
mentioned, to be somewhat more than accidental and to signify the
original introduction of this variety from Japan. We have, in the
attempts at amelioration, noted the appearance of forms of types similar
to those under cultivation. The presumptive evidence is in favor of the
view that all cultivated types are removes from nature, not new
originations by man; yet the proof is not as decisive as could be wished.
D. gingidium Linn.
Europe and north Africa.
This is the gingidium of the ancients,
according to Sprengel. "There is, saith Galen, great increase of
gingidium in Syria, and it is eaten. Diascorides doth also write the same:
this pole herbe, (saith he) is eaten raw, sodden, and preserved with
great good to the stomacke."