Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. Elaeagnaceae. OLEASTER. WILD
Europe and northern Asia.
The wild olive is a tree mainly cultivated for
its fruit, which, in general, is acid and eatable. In Greece, it is sweetishacid
and mealy when ripe. The fruit is commonly sold in the markets of
Constantinople. It abounds in a dry, mealy, saccharine substance
which is sweet and pleasant. The fruit is eaten in Nepal; it is cultivated
in Thibet; and in Persia appears as dessert under the name of zinzeyd.
A spirit is distilled from the fruit in Yarkand.
E. argentea Pursh. SILVERBERRY.
About Hudson's Bay this shrub produces a dry,
farinaceous, edible drupe about the size of a small cherry.
E. latifolia Linn. OLEASTER. WILD OLIVE.
The fruit is olive-shaped and larger than an olive. It is
Eaten in Nepal and the mountains of Hindustan and Siam. The oleaster,
or wild olive, has a fruit the size and form of a damson, has a stone in
the center and when ripe is of a pale red or cherry color. It is very acrid
and though not generally considered an edible fruit in India, yet, when
cooked and sweetened with sugar, makes a very agreeable compote.
Brandis says the acid, somewhat astringent fruit is eaten. It is
abundant on the Neil-gherries, says Wight, and the fruit is edible and
also makes a good tart.
E. perrottetii Schlecht. PHILIPPINE OLEASTER.
The fruit of the Philippine oleaster has the taste of
the best cherries.
E. umbellata Thunb.
The small, succulent fruit is eaten in India.
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Palmae. MACAW-FAT. OIL PALM.
Tropical Africa and introduced to tropical America.
The bright yellow
drupe with shiny, purple-black point, though nauseous to the taste, is
Eaten in Africa. Mawezi, or palm oil, of the consistency of honey, is
rudely extracted from this palm and despite its flavor, is universally
used in cooking. This palm is also tapped for toddy. Palm chop, a dish
prepared at Angola from the fresh nut, is pronounced most excellent by
Montiero, who also describes the fresh wine as delicious. Lunan says
the roasted nuts taste very much like the outside fat of roasted mutton,
and that the negroes are fond of the oil which sometimes makes an
ingredient in their foods. Hartt says this palm is the dendes of Brazil,
the caiauke of the Amazons, and that the oil is much used for culinary
Elaeocarpus dentatus Vahl. Tiliaceae (Elaeocarpaceae).
The pulp surrounding the stone of the fruit is eatable,
and in India the fruits are either used in curries or pickled like olives.
E. floribundus Blume.
The fruit is an article of food. In India, the fruit, called in
Bengal julpai, of the size and shape of an olive, is pickled.
E. munroii Mast.
The olive-sized fruit is eaten by the natives.
Elaeodendron glaucum Pers. Celastraceae. CEYLON TEA.
This plant has been introduced from Ceylon under the
name of Ceylon tea.
E. orientale Jacq. OLIVE-WOOD.
Mauritius Islands, Madagascar and Burma, where it is called let-petben.
Its leaves are used by the natives for tea.
E. sphaerophyllum Presl.
The drupaceous fruits are edible.
Eleocharis tuberosa Schult. Cyperaceae. WATER-CHESTNUT.
This plant is grown in southern China for its roots, for
which there is a great demand in all Chinese towns." Royle says it is the
pi-tsi of the Chinese and that the round, turnip-shaped tubers are
Eaten. Loudon calls it the water-chestnut and says it is grown in tanks
by the Chinese for the tubers. Ainslie says the root is in high estimation
Either for the pot or as a medicine. This rush can be subjected to
regular cultivation in ponds, says Mueller, for the sake of its edible,
wholesome tubers. It is largely cultivated all over China. The tuber is
sweet and juicy with a chestnut flavor and is universally used as food.
A kind of arrowroot is made from it.
Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Scitamineae (Zingiberaceae).
From time immemorial, great numbers of the natives have
derived a livelihood from the cultivation of this plant. The fruit is used
as an aromatic in medicine throughout the East Indies and is largely
consumed as a condiment. It furnishes the Ceylon cardamom and the
large cardamom of Guibourt mentioned in his history of drugs. It is
cultivated in Crete.
Eleusine aegyptiaca Desf. Gramineae. ELEUSINE.
Cosmopolitan tropics and subtropics.
This grass grows most
abundantly on waste ground, also on the flat roofs of the Arab houses
in Unganyembe. The natives gather the ears, dry them in the sun, beat
out the grain on the rocks, grind and make a stir-about of it. Its grain is
used in southern India. It has a small seed, covered in part with a
bearded husk through which the shining seed is seen.
E. coracana Gaertn. ELEUSINE. NATCHNEE. RAGEE.
South America, East Indies and Egypt.
This grass is cultivated on a
large scale in many tropical countries. It is the most productive of all
the Indian cereals, says Elliott, and is the staple grain of the Mysore
country. In Sikkim, says Hooker, the seeds are fermented to make a
drink called murwa. On the Coromandel coast, writes Ainslie, it is a
useful and most valuable grain, which is eaten and prized by the
natives. The grain is of the size of a mustard seed and is dark in color; it
is either made into cakes, or is eaten as a porridge; it is pleasant to the
taste and in its nature aperient. It is enumerated by Thunberg among
the edible plants of Japan. Grant found this grass cultivated everywhere
along his route through central Africa. Its flour, if soaked for a night in
water, makes a very fair unleavened bread. A coarse beer, tasting
pleasantly bitter, is also made from this grain mixed with that of durra.
Schweinfurth says it is called telaboon by the Arabians, by the
Abyssinians tocusso and is grown only in the poorest soils. It has a
disagreeable taste and makes only a wretched sort of pop. It has been
grown in small quantities at the Michigan Agricultural College.
E. tocussa Fresen.
This plant furnishes a bread corn and is called dagussa.
Parkyns, who ate of the bread in Abyssinia, says its taste is unpleasant
as it leaves a gritty, sandy taste in the mouth and passes through the
stomach with but little change. Its native country is given by Unger as
the East Indies.
Elymus arenarius Linn. Gramineae. LYME GRASS. RANCHERIA
Europe and western North America.
The seed of this grass is threshed
out and eaten by the Digger Indians. It is indigenous to France and is
used as an ornamental plant in gardens.