Hedysarum mackenzii Richards. Leguminosae. LICORICE-ROOT.
Richardson says at Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie River,
this plant furnishes long, flexible roots'which taste sweet like licorice
and are much eaten in the spring by the natives but become woody and
lose their juiciness and crispness as the season advances. This is the
licorice-root of the trappers of the Northwest and is also used as a food
by the Indians of Alaska.
Heldreichia kotschyi Boiss. Cruciferae.
This plant has the same properties as the cresses.
Helianthus animus Linn. Compositae. SUNFLOWER.
This plant is said by Pickering to be a native of western
America and is called in Mexico chimalati. Gray says it probably
belongs to the warmer parts of North America. Other botanists ascribe
its origin to Mexico and Peru. Brewer and Watson say in all probability
the wild sunflower of the California plains is the original of the
cultivated sunflower and that the seeds are now used by the Indians as
food. Kalm, 1749, saw the common sunflower cultivated by the Indians
at Loretto, Canada, in their maize fields; the seeds were mixed with thin
sagamite or maize soup. In 1615, the sunflower was seen by
Champlain among the Hurons. The seeds are said to be boiled and
eaten in Tartary. In Russia, they are ground into a meal, the finer kinds
being made into tea-cakes, and in some parts the whole seed is roasted
and used as a substitute for coffee.
Gerarde, in, England, writes: "We have found by triall, that the buds
before they be flowered, boiled and eaten with butter, vinegar and
pepper, after the manner of artichokes, an exceeding pleasant meat,
surpassing the artichoke far in procuring bodily lust. The same buds
with the stalks neere unto the top (the hairness being taken away)
broiled upon a gridiron and afterwards eaten with oile, vinegar, and
pepper have the like property." In Russia, this plant yields about 50
bushels of seed per acre, from which about 50 gallons of oil are
expressed and the oil-cake is said to be superior to that from linseed for
the feeding of cattle. This oil is used for culinary purposes in many
places in Russia. In Landeshut, Germany, the carefully dried leaf is
much used locally for a tobacco. The seed-receptacles are made into
blotting paper and the inner part of the stalk into a fine writing paper in
the manufactories of the province. The stalk, when treated like flax,
produces a silky fiber of excellent quality. The green leaves make
excellent fodder, and Sir Alien Crockden, in England, is said to grow the
plant at Sevenoaks, for the purpose of feeding his stock. The leaves,
dried and burned to powder, are valuable, mixed with bran, for milch
cows. The seeds are also said to be valuable as a food for sheep. The
dried seeds are pounded into a cake and eaten by the Indians of the
H. doronicoides Lam
This coarse species with showy heads, of river bottoms
from Ohio to Illinois and southward, is most probably, says Gray, the
original of the Jerusalem artichoke.
H. giganteus Linn. GIANT SUNFLOWER.
Eastern North America.
The Choctaws use the seeds ground to a flour
and mixed with maize flour for making a very palatable bread.
H. tuberosus Linn. JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE.
The name, Jerusalem artichoke, is considered to be a
corruption of the Italian Girasoli articocco, sunflower artichoke. Gray
thinks that this esculent originated in the valley of the Mississippi from
the species of sunflower, H. doronicoides, Lam. It was cultivated by the
Huron Indians. In New England, Gookin found the natives mixing
Jerusalem artichokes in their pottage. They were growing in Virginia, in
1648 and at Mobile, Alabama, in 1775. The sunflower reached Europe
in the early part of the seventeenth century, as it is not mentioned in
Bauhin's Phytopinax, 1596, and is mentioned in his Pinax, 1623,
where, among other names, he calls it Crysanthemum e Canada
quibusdam, Canada & Artichoki sub terra, aliis. It is figured by
Columna, 1616, and also by Laurembergius, 1632; Ray, 1686, makes
the first use found of the name Jerusalem artichoke, though Parkinson
used the word in 1640, according to Gray. In 1727, Townsend says "it
is a Root fit to be eat about Christmas when it is boiled." Mawe, 1778,
says it is by many esteemed. Bryant, 1783, says, "not much cultivated."
In 1806, McMahon speaks of it in American gardens and calls it "a
wholesome, palatable food." In 1863, Burr describes varieties with
white, purple, red and yellow-skinned tubers.
The history of the Jerusalem artichoke has been well treated by Gray
and Trumbull in the American Journal of Science, May, 1877, and
April, 1883. It was found in culture at the Lew Chew Islands about
1853.2 We offer a synonymy as below:
Flos Solis Farnesianus sive Aster Peruanus tubercosus. Col. 13. i6i6.
Helianthemum indicum tuberosum. Bauh. Pin. 277. 1623.
De Solis flore tuberoso, sen flore Farnesiano Fabii Columnae. Aldinus,
Battatas de Canada. Park. Par. 1629.
Adenes Canadenses sen flos solis glandulosus. Lauremb. 132. 1632.
Flos Solis pyramidalis, parvo flore, tuberosa radice, Heliotropium
indicum. Ger. 1633.
Peruanus solis flos ex Indiis tuberosus. Col. in Hern. 878, 881. 1651.
Potatoes of Canada. Coles. 1657.
Canada & Artischokki sub terra. H. R. P. 1665.
Chrysanthemum latifolium Brasilianum. Bauh. Prod. 70. 1671.
Chrysanthemum Canadense arumosum. Cat. H. L. B. 1672.
Helenium Canadense. Amman. 1676.
Chrysanthemum perenne majus fol, integris, americanum tuberum.
Jerusalem Artichoke. Ray 335. i686.
Corona solis parvo flore, tuberosa radice. Tourn. 489. 1719.
Helianthus radice tuberosa esculenta, Hierusalem Artichoke. Clayton.
Helianthus foliis ovato cordatis triplinervus. Gronov. Virg. 129. 1762.
Helianthus tuberosus. Linn. Sp. 1277. 1763.
Helichrysum serpyllifolium Less. Compositae. HOTTENTOT TEA.
This plant is used as a tea substitute under the name of
Heliconia bihai Linn. Scitamineae (Heliconiaceae). FALSE
In the West Indies, the young shoots are eaten by the
H. psittacorum Linn. f. PARROT'S PLANTAIN.
In the West Indies, the shoots are eaten.
Helwingia rusciflora Willd. Araliaceae (Helwingiaceae).
The young leaves, says Balfour, are used in Japan as an
Hemerocallis sp. Liliaceae. DAY LILY.
It is somewhat difficult, says Penhallow, to give
testimony bearing upon the flavor and desirable qualities of flowers and
buds from various species of Hemerocallis. In certain sections of the
Island of Yezo, particularly on the pumice formation of the east coast,
these plants are very abundant and, at the time of blossoming, the
fields for miles along the road on either side are almost uniformly
golden-yellow. At such times the Aino women may be seen busily
engaged gathering the flowers which they take home to dry or pickle in
salt. They are afterwards used in soups.
H. minor Mill.
In China, the young leaves are eaten and appear to
intoxicate or stimulate to some extent. The flowers are eaten as a relish
with meat. This species is said by Vilmorin to be a native of Siberia and
to be grown in French flower gardens.
Henriettea succosa DC. Melastomaceae.
The plant furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value.
Henriettella flavescens Triana. Melastomaceae.
This species furnishes a gooseberry-like fruit of little value.
Heracleum cordatum Presl. Umbelliferae. COW PARSNIP.
The root is black, sweet scented and is used as angelica by the
H. flavescens Baumg. YELLOW COW PARSNIP.
This plant is used as a food and, in Kamchatka, a spirit called raka is
prepared from it.
H. lanatum Michx. AMERICAN COW PARSNIP.
The roots and young stems are eaten by some of the
tribes along the Pacific and it is also used by the Crees of the eastern
side of the Rocky Mountains as a potherb.
H. pubescens Bieb. DOWNY COW PARSNIP.
The young shoots are filled with a sweet, aromatic juice and are eaten
raw by the natives of the Caucasus, where it is native. In France, it is
grown in the flower garden.
H. sibiricum Linn.
In Prussia, this plant is sown in April and the next year yields an
immense amount of foliage to be used as fodder. It is more especially
grown for ewes than for any other kind of stock. In 1854, seed from
Germany was distributed from the United States Patent Office. Captain
Cook says this plant was formerly a principal ingredient in the cookery
of most of the Kamchatka dishes but since the Russians got possession
of the country it has been almost entirely appropriated to the purpose
H. sphondylium Linn. COW PARSNIP.
Europe, northern Asia and western North America.
The people of
Ploonia and Lithuania says Gerarde, "use to make drinks with the
decoction of this herb and leven or some other thing made of meale,
which is used instead of beere and other ordinaire drinks." The young
succulent stems, after being stripped of their envelope, are occasionally
eaten as a salad in the outer Hebrides. These stalks are much used,
says Johnson, in some parts of Asiatic Russia. In Russia and Siberia,
the leaf-stalks are dried in the sun and tied up in close bundles, until
they acquire a yellow color, when a sweet substance resembling sugar
forms upon them, which is eaten as a great delicacy. In Lithuania and
Siberia, a spirit is distilled from the stalks, either alone or mixed with
bilberries; fermented, they forma kind of beer. The young shoots and
leaves may be boiled and eaten as a green vegetable and, when just
sprouting from the ground, resemble asparagus in flavor.
H. tuberosum Molina.
The bulbs are frequently six inches long and three broad; the
color is yellow; the taste is pleasant. The plant grows naturally in sandy
places near hedges and produces abundantly.
Herpestis (Bacopa) monnieria H. B. & K. Scrophulareaceae.
The Indians eat this herb in their soups.
Hesperocallis undulata A. Gray. Liliaceae.
The bulb is eaten by the California Indians.