Hodgsonia heteroclita Hook. f. & Thomas. Cucurbitaceae.
Himalayan regions, Burma and Malay.
This plant is a gigantic climber
bearing immense, yellowish-white, pendulous blossoms. Its fruit is of
rich brown, whose kernels, called katior-pot by the Lepchas, are eaten.
Hoffmanseggia stricta Benth. Leguminosae.
This herb has an esculent, tuberous rootstock.
Holboellia latifolia Wall. Berberideae (Lardizabalaceae).
This is the kole-pot of the Lepchas; the fruit is eaten
in Sikkim but is mealy and insipid. This plant is called gophia and the
fruit is eaten.
Hordeum deficiens Steud. Gramineae. RED SEA BARLEY.
This is one of the two-rowed barleys cultivated in Arabia and
H. distichon Linn. BARLEY.
Parent of cultivated forms.
This is the common barley of cultivation and
occurs in numerous varieties. Meyer found it growing wild between
Lenkoran and Baku; Koch, on the Steppes of Schirwan in the southeast
of the Caucasus; Kotschy, in South Persia. Forster reports it as wild in
the region near the confluence of the Samara and the Volga. Barley was
cultivated, says Pickering, at the time of the invention of writing and
standing crops are figured under the fifth, seventh and seventeenth
dynasties of Egypt, or about 2440 B. C., 1800 B. C. and 1680 B. C. It is
mentioned as among the things that were destroyed by the plagues of
Egypt. The flour of barley was the food of the Jewish soldiers. The
Egyptians claimed that barley was the first of the cereals made use of
by man and trace its introduction to their goddess, Isis. Barley was in
all times considered by the Greeks, says Heer, as a sacred grain and
was exclusively used in sacrifices and in the great festival held every
year at Eleusis in honor of agriculture. Pliny terms it antiquissimum
frumentum, the most ancient cereal, but, according to Suetonius, it was
considered an ignominious food by the Romans. Common barley, says
Unger, came to Europe by the way of Egypt; and the Romans were
acquainted with the two- and the six-lined barley, and the Greeks with
these varieties and the bere barley. Barley was long the grain most
extensively cultivated in England. It appears on the coins of the early
Britons and was not only the grain from which their progenitors, the
Cimbri, made their bread but from which they made their favorite
beverage, beer. Herodotus describes beer made from barley as among
the drinks of the Egyptians in his day, 450 B. C., and Pliny, Aristotle,
Strabo and Diodorus mention beer. Xenophon, 400 B. C., writes that
the people of Armenia used a drink made of fermented barley. Diodorus
Siculus says the natives of Galatia prepared a beer from barley, and
barley is mentioned in Greece by Sophocles, Dioscorides and others.
Tacitus, about A. D. 100, says beer was the common drink of the
Barley was sown by Gosnold on Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth
Islands in 1602. Lescarbot sowed barley at Port Royal, Nova Scotia, in
1606, and it was growing in Champlain's garden at Quebec in 1610.
Barley was grown by the colonists of the London Company in Virginia
in 1611. It appears to have been cultivated in the New Netherlands in
1626. In 1629-33, barley was growing at Lynn, Massachusetts.
Barley can be grown in sheltered valleys as far north as 70� in Lapland
and 68� in Siberia. At Fort Yukon, Alaska, it has been grown in small
patches, according to Dall.
H. hexastichon Linn. SIX-LINED BARLEY. WINTER BARLEY.
Europe and Asia.
This barley is supposed by Lindley to be a
domesticated form of H. distichon. Unger says the six-lined, or winter
barley, was cultivated by the Egyptians, Jews and East Indians in the
earliest times and grains of it are found in the mummies of the Egyptian
catacombs. Ears are somewhat numerous, says Lubbock, in the
ancient lake habitations of Switzerland. In the ears from Wangen, each
row has generally ten or eleven grains, which, however, are smaller and
shorter than those now grown. There are now in cultivation numerous
varieties referred to this form.
H. jubatum Linn. MANED BARLEY. SQUIRREL-TAIL BARLEY.
Seashore and interior salines of the New World.
The seeds are especially
in request among the Shoshones of southern Oregon. The maned, or
squirrel-tail, barley has been known in British gardens since 1782 as
an ornamental grass. Its awned spikes are dangerous to cattle.
H. vulgare Linn. BERE. BIG BARLEY. NEPAL BARLEY.
This species furnished the varieties known as bere, or big barley, and
appears to be one of the varieties formerly cultivated in Greece. Its
native land seems unknown, although Olivier states it grew wild in the
region between the Euphrates and the Tigris. Willdenow is inclined to
place its native country in the region of the Volga. It is enumerated by
Thunherg among the edible plants of Japan. It is cultivated in Scotland
as a spring crop and in Ireland as a winter crop. Nepal barley is
cultivated at great elevations on the Himalaya Mountains and in Thibet.
The seed has frequently been sent to Europe as a very hardy kind, of
quick maturity, but it is chiefly cultivated in botanical gardens. It is a
naked-seeded species with much the appearance of wheat. It was
introduced into Britain in 1817.
H. zeocriton Linn. BATTLEDORE BARLEY. SPRAT BARLEY.
Parent of cultivated forms.
This species is occasionally cultivated in
Scotland, and Lindley says it is interesting only from a botanical point
of view. He says it is an undoubted result of domestication. Koch
collected in the Schirwan part of the Caucasus a kind of grain which he
calls H. spontaneum and regards as the original wild form of sprat
Hormosippon arcticus Berk. Algae.
This alga abounds in the Arctic regions and affords wholesome food,
which is far preferable to the tripe de roche, as it has none of its
bitterness or purgative quality.
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Piperaceae (Saururaceae).
Himalayan region, China and Japan.
The leaves of this plant are said to
be used as a potherb in Nepal. In France, it is an inmate of flower
gardens as an aquatic.
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Rhamneae. RAISIN TREE.
Himalayan regions, China and Japan.
The tree is cultivated in India for
its fruit, which has a pleasant flavor like that of a Bergamot pear. The
round fruits, about the size of a pea, are seated at the end of the
recurved, fleshy peduncle, which is cylindrical, about an inch long, and
is the part eaten.