Jubaea spectabilis H. B. & K. Palmae. COQUITO PALM. LITTLE
A palm of Chile cultivated in South America.
The sap of this tree is
boiled to the consistency of treacle and forms the miel de Raima, palm
honey, of Chile, a considerable article of trade, being much esteemed for
domestic use as sugar. The trees are felled and the crown of leaves is
immediately cut off, when the sap begins to flow and continues for
several months, provided a thin slice is shaved off the top each morning,
until the tree is exhausted. Each tree yields about 90 gallons. The nuts
are used by the Chilean confectioners in the preparation of sweetmeats
and have a pleasant, nutty taste. The nuts of the Coquito palm are often
called little cokernuts.
Juglans baccata Linn. Juglandeae. WALNUT.
The nuts are edible and furnish an oil. They are very rich
J. cinerea Linn. BUTTERNUT.
Eastern North America.
The butternut was called by the Narragansett
Indians wussoquat, and the oil from the nut was used for seasoning
their aliments. The nuts were used by the Indians to thicken their
pottage. The immature fruit is sometimes used as a pickle and is most
excellent. The kernel of the ripe nut is esteemed by those who do not
object to its strong and oily taste. The tree is occasionally grown as a
shade tree and for its nuts. In 1813, a sample of butternut sugar was
sent to the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion of Agriculture.
J. nigra Linn. BLACK WALNUT.
A tree valued for its timber, common in the western states of northeast
The kernel of the nut is sweet and less oily than the butternut
but greatly inferior to the Madeira nut. It is eaten and was a prized food
of the Indians.
J. regia Linn. ENGLISH WALNUT. MADEIRA NUT. PERSIAN
This tree extends from Greece and Asia Minor over Lebanon and Persia
to the Himalayas.
It is abundant in Kashmir, Nepal and neighboring
countries and is cultivated in Europe and elsewhere. It is referred to by
Theophrastus under the name of karuon. According to Pliny, it was
introduced into Italy from Persia, but it is mentioned as existing in Italy
by Varro, who was born B. C. 116. In many parts of Spain, France, Italy
and Germany, the nut forms an important article of food to the people,
and in some parts of France considerable quantities of oil are expressed
from the kernels to be used in cooking and as a drying oil in the arts. In
Circassia, sugar is said to be made from the sap. There are many
varieties; those of the province of Khosistan in Persia are much
esteemed and are sent in great quantities to India. In Georgia, they are
of a fine quality. In North China, an almost huskless variety occurs. In
France, there is a variety called Titmouse walnut because the shell is so
thin that birds, especially the titmouse, can break it and eat the kernel.
In the United States, it is called English walnut and two varieties
succeed well in Virginia. In western New York, it is occasionally seen in
J. rupestris Engelm.
Western North America.
The small nuts are sweet and edible.
J. sieboldiana Maxim. JAPANESE WALNUT.
The small nuts are of good flavor, borne in large clusters, a
dozen or more in one bunch.
Juniperus bermudiana Linn. Coniferae (Cupressaceae).v
In 1609, Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Sommers
were wrecked on the Bermudas and in their account say "we have a
kinde of Berne upon the Cedar tree, verie pleasant to eat." In Newes
from Barmudas, 1612, it is said, " here are an infinite number of Cedar
trees (fairest I think in the world) and those bring forth a verie sweete
berrie and wholesome to eat."
J. communis Linn. JUNIPER.
North temperate and arctic regions.
The berries are used by distillers to
flavor gin. The ripe berries were formerly used in England as a
substitute for pepper. In many parts of Germany, the berries are used
as a culinary spice. In Sweden, they are made into a conserve, also
prepared in a beverage and in some places are roasted and used as a
coffee substitute. In France, a kind of beer called genevrette is made by
fermenting a decoction of equal parts of juniperberries and barley. In
Germany, juniper is used for flavoring sauerkraut. In Kamaon, India,
the berries are added to spirits distilled from barley. In western North
America, the berries are an Indian food.
J. drupacea Labill. HABBEL. PLUM JUNIPER.
Greece, Asia Minor and Syria.
The sweet, edible fruit is highly esteemed
throughout the Orient, according to Mueller.
J. occidentalis Hook. CALIFORNIA JUNIPER.
Western North America.
The plant bears a large and tuberculated berry,
sweet and nutritious, which has, however, a resinous taste. The berries
are largely consumed by the Indians of Arizona and New Mexico.
J. pachyphlaea Torr. SWEET-FRUITED JUNIPER.
The berries are purplish, globose, half an inch in diameter and
have a sweetish and palatable pulp.
J. recurva Buch.-Ham. DROOPING JUNIPER.
In India, the sprigs are used in the distillation of
spirits. The shrub is sacred and the resinous twigs are used for incense.
This species is used in India in the preparation of an intoxicating liquor
and for making yeast.
J. tetragona Schlecht. MEXICAN JUNIPER.
The berries are half an inch in diameter, and the Indians are
said to use them as food.