Pueraria thunbergiana Benth. Leguminosae.
China and Japan.
The roots are fleshy and yield a starch of excellent
quality. The wild plants are dug for their roots. The roots contain
starch, while the leaves and shoots are used as food.
P. tuberosa DC.
Tropical India and Burma.
Brandis says the large, tuberous roots are
Pulicaria odora Reichb. Compositae.
In Yemen, this species is cultivated for its pleasant odor
and edible leaves.
Pulmonaria officinalis Linn. Boragineae. JERUSALEM COWSLIP.
Gerarde 3 says the leaves are used among potherbs.
Punica granatum Linn. Lythracieae (Punicaceae).
Asia Minor, Armenia, central Caucasus and the Himalayas.
Pomegranate is of very ancient culture in Palestine, Persia, northern
India and has been distributed eastward to northern China. On
account of the profusion of its seeds, it was with the ancients a mystical
fruit, typifying procreation, increase and abundance. Yet seedless fruits
from Djillalabad are enumerated by Harlan as among the fruits in the
market at Kabul. Sir A. Bames mentions a famous pomegranate
without seeds grown in gardens near the Kabul River, and in 1860
cuttings from a seedless variety from Palestine were distributed as a
much esteemed variety from the United Patent Office. Burnes, in his
Travels in Bokhara, remarks on the pomegranate seeding in
Mazenderan as a remarkable peculiarity. According to Athenaeus,
Aphrodite first planted the pomegranate on Cyprus and in Greece. The
fancy of the Greeks derived this fruit from the blood of Dionysius
Zagreus. The pomegranate was known in Egypt and was cultivated
even in the time of Moses. It was raised in the gardens about Carthage.
Darius Hystaspes, according to Herodotus, ate of its fruit. Homer
mentions the pomegranate as present in the gardens of Alcinous. The
Romans brought it from Carthage to Italy, for which reason they call its
fruits mala punica. Pliny enumerates nine different kinds and these at
the present day have increased greatly. The pomegranate is now found
growing wild in the southern Tyrol, southern Switzerland, as also in
Spain, southern France and Greece. The pomegranate was observed by
Wm. Bartram, about 1773, growing out of the ruins of Frederica,
Georgia, and it now thrives everywhere on the Gulf coast of Florida. It
was mentioned as found in California by Father Baegert, 1751-1768.
There are many varieties, some with sour, others with subacid, others
with sweet fruit. These are generally described as about the size of the
fist, with a tough, leathery rind of a beautiful, deep golden color tinged
with red and are crowned with the remains of the calyx lobes. The wild
fruit is brought down to India from the Hill Regions for sale, but the
best fruit, that having sweet juice and very small seeds, comes from
Kabul. Burton describes in Arabia three kinds: Shami, red outside, and
very sweet-than which he never saw a finer fruit in the East, except at
Mecca - it was almost stoneless, deliciously perfumed and as large as
an infant's head; Turki, large, and of a white color; Misri, with a greenish
rind and a somewhat subacid and harsh flavor.