Scaevola koenigii Vahl. Goodenovieae.
The leaves are eaten as potherbs. Some miraculous
qualities are ascribed to its berries. The pith, which is soft and spongy,
is fashioned by the Malays into artificial flowers.
Scandix grandiflora Linn. Umbelliferae.
Eastern Europe and Asia Minor.
This is an annual herb much liked as
a salad for its pleasant, aromatic taste.
S. pecten-veneris Linn. SCANDIX. VENUS COMB. WILD
East Mediterranean countries.
This is the skanthrix, sold, according to
scandal, by the mother of Euripides. Skanthrix is mentioned also as a
potherb by Opion, Theophrastus and Erisistratris. This, too, is the
skanthrox of Dioscorides, eaten either raw or cooked. Scandix is
enumerated by Pliny among the esculent plants of Egypt. It was
observed by Honorius Bellus to be eaten in Crete.
Schinus dependens Orteg. Anacardiaceae.
Brazil and Chile.
The inhabitants prepare from the berries a kind of red
wine of an agreeable flavor but very heating. The fruits have a less
disagreeable flavor than S. molle.
S. latifolius Engl.
Dr. Gillies states that the Pehuenco Indians of Chile prepare by
fermentation an intoxicating liquor from the fruit of this or a nearly
S. molle Linn. AUSTRALIAN PEPPER. MOLLE.
Acosta says that the molle tree possesses rare virtues,
and that the Indians make a wine from the small twigs. Garcilasso de la
Vega says, in Peru, they make a beverage of the berries. Molina says the
people of Chile prepare a red wine, very heating, from the berries. The
tree was introduced into Mexico after the time of Montezuma and is
now found in southwestern United States.
Schisandra grandiflora Hook. f. & Thorns. Magnoliaceae
The fruits are pleasantly acid and are much eaten in
Sikkim. The seeds are very aromatic. Royle n says the fruit is eaten by
the Hill People in the Himalayas.
Schizostachyum hasskarlianum Kurz. Gramineae.
The young shoots of this bamboo, when bursting out of the
ground, are cooked as a vegetable in Java.
S. serpentinum Kurz.
Mueller says the young shoots are used as a vegetable.
Schleichera trijuga Willd. Sapindaceae. GUM-LAC.
A handsome tree of India. Wight says the subacid aril of the seed is
eaten, and from the seeds a lamp-oil is expressed in Malabar.
Schmidelia (Alophylus) edulis A. St. Hil. Sapindaceae. FRUTA DE
The fruits are of a sweet and agreeable taste and are sought for
by the inhabitants of the places where they grow.
Schotia speciosa Jacq. Leguminosae. CAFFIR BEAN.
Tropical and south Africa.
The beans of this poisonous shrub are said
by Thunberg to be boiled and eaten by the Hottentots. According to
Atherstone, the beans are roasted and eaten in the Albany districts,
where they are called boer boom.
Scindapsus cuscuaria Presl. Araceae.
The corms are baked and eaten by the Polynesians.
Scirpus articulatus Linn. Cyperaceae.
Africa, East Indies and Australia.
This species is enumerated by
Thunberg among the edible plants of Japan.
S. grossus Linn. f.
East Indies and Malay.
In portions of India in time of famine, the root is
eagerly dug for human food. The fibers and dark cuticle being removed,
the solid part of the root is dried, ground and made into bread, a little
flour being sometimes mixed with it.
S. lacustris Linn. BULRUSH. TULE.
In California, the plant is called tule and the roots
are eaten by the Sierra Indians; they are also eaten by the Indians of
Arizona and the upper Missouri.
S. maritimus Linn. SEASIDE BULRUSH.
In India, the roots, which are large, have been ground and used as a
flour in times of scarcity.
Sclerocarya birroea Hochst. Anacardiaceae.
Eastern equatorial Africa.
This plant is a forest tree called m'ckoowee on
the upper Nile. The kernels of the fruit, whose unripe sarcocarp is
apple-scented, are milky and are eaten like ground nuts. This species
affords to the natives of Abyssinia an edible kernel, while its fruits are
employed in Senegal in the preparation of an alcoholic drink.
S. caffra Sond.
This species is known on the Zambezi as mooroola, and
the seeds are eaten by the natives.
Scolymus grandiflorus Desf. Compositae.
The Arabs eat the stalks, both raw and boiled.
S. hispanicus Linn. GOLDEN THISTLE. SPANISH OYSTER
The root of the wild plant is collected and is used
as a salsify. According to Pickering, this plant is mentioned by
Theophrastus, who says, "its edible root, becoming milky;" by
Dioscorides, who says "the young plant, eaten as greens;" by Sibthorp,
as eaten in Greece; and by Clusius who says "the root and young plant,
eaten in Spain." This plant is supposed to be the skolumus and
leimonia of Theophrastus, 322 B. C.; it is the scolymus of Pliny, A. D.
79, recorded as a food plant. The wild plant was seen in Portugal and
Spain by Clusius in 1576. The plant was described by Gerarde in
England, 1597, but he does not appear to have grown it. It was in the
botanic gardens at Oxford in 1658 but receives only a quoted mention
from Clusius by Ray in 1686. The vegetable appears not to have been
in English culture in 1778, nor in 1807, and, in 1869, it is recorded as
a new vegetable. In 1597, Gerarde mentions its culture in Holland, and,
in 1616, Dodonaeus says it was planted in Belgian gardens. In France,
in 1882, it is said not to be under culture, but that its long, fleshy root
is used as a kitchen vegetable in Provence and Languedoc. In 1883, it is
included among kitchen esculents by Vilmorin. It is recorded by Burr
for American gardens in 1863, and its seed was offered in American
seed catalogs of 1882, perhaps a few years earlier.
S. maculatus Linn. SPOTTED GOLDEN THISTLE.
This plant is thought by Unger to be the
skolumos of Dioscorides. The young leaves are eaten as a spinach.
Fraas says the young leaves are eaten in Greece.
Scoparia dulcis Linn. Scrophulariaceae. SWEET BROOM.
Peru and neighboring tropical America.
The plant is called in Brazil
basourinha or vacourinha.3 In the Philippines, it is sometimes used as
a substitute for tea and is called in Tagalo chachachachan^
Scorpiurus sp. Leguminosae. CATERPILLARS.
A strange taste causes various species of Scorpiurus to be included
among garden vegetables, the caterpillar-like forms of the seed pods
being used as salad-garnishing by those fond of practical jokes. As a
vegetable their flavor is very indifferent. The species enumerated by
Vilmorin are Scorpiurus vermiculata Linn., the common caterpillar; S.
muricata Linn., the prickly caterpillar; S. sulcata Linn., the furrowed
caterpillar; and S. subvillosa Linn., the hairy caterpillar. The latter
species is figured by Dodonaeus, 1616, and is said even then to be
sometimes grown in gardens. They are all native to southern Europe.
Scorzonera crocifolia Sibth. & Sm. Compositae.
The leaves, according to Heldreich, are used for a favorite salad
S. deliciosa Guss.
This species is in most extensive cultivation in Sicily on account
of its sweet roots of very grateful flavor. It is considered by Mueller
equal, if not superior, in its culinary use to the allied salsify.
S. hispanica Linn. BLACK OYSTER PLANT. BLACK SALSIFY.
Central and southern Europe.
The slimy, sweetish roots have gained
considerably by cultivation. The roots are long, black and tapering and
are eaten, boiled or stewed, after soaking in water to extract the bitter
taste. This plant was not mentioned by Matthiolus, 1554, but, in 1570,
was described as a new plant, called by the Spaniards scurzonera or
scorzonera. In 1576, Lobel says the plant was in French, Belgian and
English gardens from Spanish seed. Neither Camerarius, 1586, nor
Dalechamp, 1587, nor Bauhin, 1596, nor Clusius, 1601, indicates it as
a cultivated plant, and Gerarde, 1597, calls it a stranger in England but
growing in his garden. In 1612, Le Jardinier Solitaire calls this salsify
the best root which can be grown in gardens. The use of the root as a
garden vegetable is recorded in England by Meager, 1683, Worlidge,
1683, and by Ray, 1686. Quintyne, in France, 1690, calls it "one of our
chiefest roots." Its cultivation does not, therefore, extend back to the
sixteenth century. No varieties are recorded under culture. Black salsify
was in American gardens in 1806. It was first known in Spain about
the middle of the sixteenth century for its medicinal qualities as a
supposed remedy for snake-bite. Black salsify was introduced into
France from Spain about the beginning of the seventeenth century.
S. parviflora Jacq.
Europe, northern and western Asia.
This plant is called by the Kirghis
idschelik and is eaten as greens.
S. tuberosa Pall.
This species yields an edible root.
Scrophularia aquatica Linn. Scrophulariaceae. BISHOP'S
LEAVES. BROWNWORT. WATER-BETONY.
Europe and adjoining Asia.
In France, this plant is called herbe du
siege, according to Burnett, from its roots having been eaten by the
garrison of Rochelle during the siege in 1628.
S. frigida Boiss.
According to Haussknecht, this species yields a saccharine
exudation in Persia.