Ullucus tuberosus Caldas. Chenopodiaceae (Bassellaceae).
Andes of Bolivia, Peru and New Granada.
The ulluco, or melloco, is a
juicy plant with a creeping stem, the sprouts of which swell at the tips
into tubers from the size of a hazelnut to that of a pigeon's egg, like the
sweet potato. In Peru, it is called oca quina and Hemdon says is more
glutinous than the oca and not as pleasant to the taste. The plant is
extensively cultivated and, from the tubers by alternately freezing and
steeping, a starchy substance is obtained, which is called by the
Indians chuna and is relished. When the failure of the potato crop was
dreaded in England, this plant was one of the substitutes proposed,
but the tubers were not considered sufficiently agreeable to the British
palate. Ulluco was introduced into France in 1848, but trial showed its
unfitness for that climate.
Ulmus campestris Linn. Urticaceae (Ulmaceae). ENGLISH
Europe and the Orient.
The English elm was early introduced into
Boston and is now grown here and there as a shade tree. In Norway, the
inhabitants kiln-dry the bark and in time of scarcity grind it into a meal
to be mixed with flour for bread. The fruit, in a green state, according to
Browne, is sometimes eaten as a salad. Some years ago, in England,
says Johnson, an immense quantity of dried elm leaves were used for
adulterating tea and for manufacturing a substance intended to be
used as a substitute for it. In Russia, the leaves of a variety are used as
tea. In times of great scarcity, the ground bark, the leaves and the
membranous fruit are all eaten as food in China.
U. fulva (rubra) Michx. RED ELM. SLIPPERY ELM.
New England to Wisconsin and Kentucky.
Flour prepared from the
bark by drying and grinding, mixed with milk, like arrowroot, is said by
Emerson to be a wholesome and nutritious food for infants and