Ctenolophaceae (H. Winkl.) Exell & Mendonca
~ Hugoniaceae, Linaceae
Habit and leaf form. Trees (with stellate indumentum). Leaves opposite; leathery; petiolate; simple. Lamina entire; pinnately veined (arcuate-anastomosing); cross-venulate. Leaves stipulate. Stipules interpetiolar (large); concrescent; very caducous. Lamina margins entire.
Leaf anatomy. Hairs present. Complex hairs present; stellate (present also on the stipules, sepals and petals).
Stem anatomy. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring. Vessel end-walls scalariform.
Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite.
Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in cymes. Inflorescences terminal and axillary; cymes or cymelike racemes. Flowers pentacyclic. Free hypanthium absent. Hypogynous disk present; extrastaminal; annular (the stamens adnate to its inner side).
Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 10; 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx 5; 1 whorled; gamosepalous (very shortly connate). Calyx lobes markedly longer than the tube. Calyx persistent. Corolla 5; 1 whorled; polypetalous (the petals linear-oblong); imbricate; fleshy; deciduous. Petals spoon-shaped at the base.
Androecium 10. Androecial members free of the perianth; markedly unequal; free of one another; 2 whorled. Stamens 10; diplostemonous; both alternating with and opposite the corolla members. Anthers introrse (ovoid); apiculate. Pollen grains aperturate; 7–9 aperturate; colpate, or colporate (col(por)oidate).
Gynoecium 2 carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth. The pistil 2 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synovarious to synstylovarious; superior. Ovary 2 locular. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 2; free, or partially joined; apical. Stigmas 2; capitate. Placentation apical. Ovules 2 per locule; long funicled; pendulous; arillate.
Fruit non-fleshy; indehiscent; a nut; 1 seeded. Seeds with fibrous arils.
Geography, cytology. Paleotropical. Tropical. Tropical Africa, Western Malaysia.
Taxonomy. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Rutiflorae; Geraniales. Cronquist’s Subclass Rosidae; Linales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; fabid; Order Malpighiales.
Species 3. Genera 1; only genus, Ctenolophon.