Cunoniaceae R. Br.
Including Belangeraceae J.G. Agardh, Callicomaceae J.G. AgardhExcluding Aphanopetalaceae, Baueraceae, Eucryphiaceae
Habit and leaf form. Trees, shrubs, and lianas; non-laticiferous and without coloured juice. Self supporting, or climbing. Leaves opposite, or whorled, or alternate (rarely); when alternate, spiral (Gumillea); leathery; petiolate; not gland-dotted; nearly always compound, or simple (sometimes); when compound, ternate, or pinnate; often conspicuously stipulate. Stipules interpetiolar (often), or intrapetiolar. Leaves without a persistent basal meristem. Domatia occurring in the family (from 3 genera); manifested as pits, or pockets, or hair tufts.
Leaf anatomy. Mucilaginous epidermis present.
Adaxial hypodermis very commonly present (commonly mucilaginous). Lamina dorsiventral. Cystoliths absent. The mesophyll with sclerencymatous idioblasts, or without sclerenchymatous idioblasts. Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells (Weinmannia).
Stem anatomy. Cork cambium present; initially superficial. Nodes tri-lacunar. Primary vascular tissue in a cylinder, without separate bundles. Cortical bundles absent. Medullary bundles absent. Internal phloem absent. Secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring. ‘Included’ phloem absent. Xylem with fibre tracheids; with vessels. Vessel end-walls simple, or scalariform, or scalariform and simple. Vessels without vestured pits. Primary medullary rays narrow. Wood parenchyma apotracheal (diffuse or banded).
Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite (usually), or dioecious, or androdioecious (rarely), or gynodioecious (rarely), or polygamomonoecious (rarely).
Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in cymes, in racemes, and in heads. The ultimate inflorescence unit cymose, or racemose. Inflorescences usually compound; without involucral bracts. Flowers small; regular; cyclic, or partially acyclic. Sometimes the androecium acyclic. Hypogynous disk present (commonly), or absent (?).
Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla, or sepaline; (3–)5(–10), or (6–)10(–20); 1 whorled, or 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx (3–)4–5(–10); 1 whorled; polysepalous, or gamosepalous (basally). Calyx lobes markedly longer than the tube. Calyx regular; imbricate, or valvate. Corolla when present, (3–)4–5(–10) (alternating with the calyx); 1 whorled; polypetalous, or gamopetalous (basally). Corolla lobes markedly longer than the tube. Corolla regular; not fleshy.
Androecium 4–5 (in one whorl opposite the calyx), or 8–10 (in two whorls), or 20–100 (often ‘many’). Androecial members unbranched; free of the perianth; all equal; free of one another; 1 whorled, or 2 whorled. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 4–5, or 8–10, or 11–40; isomerous with the perianth, or diplostemonous, or polystemonous; when in one whorl, oppositisepalous. Anthers dorsifixed; versatile (mostly); dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. Pollen shed as single grains. Pollen grains aperturate; 2 aperturate (often), or 3 aperturate; colpate, or colporate; 2-celled (in Caldcluvia).
Gynoecium 2 carpelled (usually), or 3–5 carpelled (rarely). The pistil when other than apocarpous, 2 celled, or 3 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous, or apocarpous (more or less, rarely); synovarious (usually), or eu-apocarpous to semicarpous (rarely); superior (usually), or partly inferior (Spiraeanthemum). Ovary when syncarpous 2 locular (usually), or 3–5 locular (rarely). Styles 2, or 3–5; free. Stigmas dry type; papillate; Group II type. Placentation axile, or apical. Ovules 2–50 per locule (i.e. to ‘many’); non-arillate; anatropous, or hemianatropous; bitegmic; crassinucellate. Outer integument contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; ephemeral. Synergids pear-shaped. Hypostase present (Ceratopetalum), or absent. Endosperm formation nuclear.
Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; not an aggregate, or an aggregate to not an aggregate. The fruiting carpel when apocarpous/semicarpous (i.e. rarely), dehiscent; a follicle. Fruit when syncarpous (i.e. usually), dehiscent, or indehiscent, or a schizocarp. Mericarps when schizocarpic, 2, or 3–5 (?). Fruit a capsule (usually), or a drupe (rarely), or a nut (rarely). Seeds endospermic. Endosperm oily. Seeds small; winged, or wingless. Cotyledons 2. Embryo usually straight. Micropyle zigzag.
Seedling. Germination phanerocotylar.
Physiology, biochemistry. Cyanogenic (rarely), or not cyanogenic. Alkaloids present (rarely), or absent. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins present; cyanidin, or cyanidin and delphinidin. Flavonols present; quercetin, or kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. Ellagic acid absent (Callicoma, Ceratopetalum). Aluminium accumulation demonstrated (often).
Geography, cytology. Temperate to tropical. Malaysia, Australasia, South Africa, Central and South America - mostly between 13 degrees North and 35 South. X = 12, 15, 16.
Taxonomy. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Rosiflorae; Cunoniales. Cronquist’s Subclass Rosidae; Rosales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; fabid; Order Oxalidales.
Species 250. Genera about 20; Acrophyllum, Acsmithia, Aistopetalum, Anodopetalum, Caldcluvia, Callicoma, Ceratopetalum, Codia, Cunonia, Geissois, Gillbeea, Gumillea(?), Lamanonia, Pancheria, Platylophus, Pseudoweinmannia, Pullea, Schizomeria, Spiraeanthemum, Vesselowskya, Weinmannia.
• Technical details: Cunonia, Weinmannia.
• Technical details: Weinmannia (Thonner).
• Technical details: Weinmannia (Lindley).