Other Operational Classifications


⇒ Scientific and Botanical Systems of Classification
⇒ Taxonomic Groups
  ⇒ Kingdoms
    ⇒ Divisions of Kingdom Plantae
    ⇒ Variety Versus Cultivar
    ⇒ Rules in Classification
⇒ Other Classification Systems (Operational)
  ⇒ Seasonal Growth Cycle
  ⇒ Kinds of Stems
  ⇒ Common Stem Growth Forms
⇒ Classification of Fruits
  ⇒ Botanical Classification
  ⇒ Fleshy Fruits
  ⇒ Other Operational Classifications
⇒ Classification of Vegetables
  ⇒ Life Cycle
  ⇒ Edible or Economic Parts
  ⇒ Adaptation
  ⇒ Botanical Features
⇒ Classification of Ornamental Plants
  ⇒ Herbaceous Ornamental Plants
  ⇒ Growth Cycle
    ⇒ Flowering
    ⇒ Foliage
⇒ Other Operational Classifications
  ⇒ Woody Medicinal Plants
  ⇒ Shrubs
  ⇒ Trees
  ⇒ Vines
⇒ Classification Based on Hardiness (Adaptation)
Herbaceous plants may be used in a variety of other ways, both indoors and outdoors.
    1. Bedding plants: Bedding plants are annual plants raised for planting outdoors in flower beds. They are usually started from seed indoors in the off-season and transplanted later in the growing seasons. Examples include petunia (Petunia spp.), zinnia (Zinnia elegans), pansy (Viola tricolor), and marigold (Tagetes spp.).
    2. Hanging plants: Hanging basket plants are plants, annual or perennial, flowering or foliage, that are grown in decorative containers and hung by equally elegant ropes from the ceiling in the patio, in the doorway area, or from decorative plant poles. Examples are geranium (Geranium spp.) and spider plant (Chlorophytum comosum).
    3. Houseplants: Indoor plants or house plants are plants adapted to indoor conditions. They are grown in containers, are usually slow growing, and may be flowering or foliage plants. Examples are sansevieria (Sansevieria spp.) and Indian rubber plant (Ficus elastica).

Woody Medicinal Plants

Woody ornamentals differ in size and growth pattern. Some shed their leaves and are called deciduous, whereas others maintain fresh leaves year-round and are called evergreen. Some are shrubs, and others are trees. Woody ornamentals may be grown in a perennial garden along with herbaceous perennials. When choosing these plants, attention should be paid to growth habit, color, texture, shape, and adaptation.


As previously described, a shrub is a perennial woody plant of relatively low stature and usually produces multiple stems that arise from the ground or very close to it. Shrubs, which may be used as hedge plants or ground cover, can be classified as deciduous or evergreen.

  1. Deciduous shrubs:    Deciduous shrubs shed their leaves at some point in the year. Example are lilac (Sylinga vulgaris), honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), and barberry (Berberis spp.).
  2. Evergreen shrubs: Evergreen shrubs may be further divide into two groups according to leaf size.
  • Narrow leaf: Narrow leaf shrubs have need-like leaves, as in pine (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.).
  • Broadleaf: Broadleaf shrubs have large leaf lamina, as in gardenia (Gardenia spp.) and rhododendron.


Trees are the largest plant materials in the landscape and thus should be located with care. They can overwhelm a house in the adult stage if inappropriate trees species are planted. Trees can also
modify the local climate (e.g., as shade trees or wind breaks).

  1. Deciduous trees: Examples of deciduous trees birch (Betula papyrifera), elm (Ulmus spp.), and willow (Salix spp.)              
  2. Evergreen trees:
    Narrow leaf: Examples of narrow leaf evergreen trees are spruce (Picea spp.) and red cedar (Juniperus viginiana).
    Broadleaf: Examples of broadleaf evergreen trees are holy (Ilex opaca) and citrus (Citrus spp.).


Vines are climbers and can be manipulated to create a variety of structures and for various functions in the landscape. Like trees and shrubs, vines can be deciduous or evergreen.

  1. Deciduous vines: An example of a deciduous vine is clematis (Clematis recta).
  2. Evergreen vines: An example of an evergreen vine is English ivy (Hedera helix).