Scientific and Botanical Systems of Classification


⇒ Scientific and Botanical Systems of Classification
⇒ Taxonomic Groups
  ⇒ Kingdoms
    ⇒ Divisions of Kingdom Plantae
    ⇒ Variety Versus Cultivar
    ⇒ Rules in Classification
⇒ Other Classification Systems (Operational)
  ⇒ Seasonal Growth Cycle
  ⇒ Kinds of Stems
  ⇒ Common Stem Growth Forms
⇒ Classification of Fruits
  ⇒ Botanical Classification
  ⇒ Fleshy Fruits
  ⇒ Other Operational Classifications
⇒ Classification of Vegetables
  ⇒ Life Cycle
  ⇒ Edible or Economic Parts
  ⇒ Adaptation
  ⇒ Botanical Features
⇒ Classification of Ornamental Plants
  ⇒ Herbaceous Ornamental Plants
  ⇒ Growth Cycle
    ⇒ Flowering
    ⇒ Foliage
⇒ Other Operational Classifications
  ⇒ Woody Medicinal Plants
  ⇒ Shrubs
  ⇒ Trees
  ⇒ Vines
⇒ Classification Based on Hardiness (Adaptation)
Scientific systems of classification go beyond the superficial or natural system by employing a number of criteria that include morphological, anatomical, ultrastructural, physiological, phytochemical, cytological, and evolutionary (phylogenetical) criteria. Pyrame de Candole is credited with the introduction of the term taxonomyas the science of classifying and naming plants. Taxonomy is sometimes used synonymously with systematics. The latter, however, is a field of biology involved with the study of diversity among organisms to establish their natural (evolutionary) relationship, making taxonomy a discipline of systematics.

In plant identification, individuals are assigned to descending series of related plants, based on their known common characteristics. For example, a marigold plant is first placed in a more distant group with plants that have seed, then among seed plants with flowers, and eventually in the most closely associated groups of varieties of marigold. In terms of botanical nomenclature (naming plants), Carolus Linnaeus is credited with developing the current Latin-based system called the binomial nomenclature (because an individual is given two names, as opposed to the polynomial system, which was more descriptive). The international body that sets the rules for naming plants by this system publishes the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)to provide guidelines for standardizing the naming of plants. These rules are revised as new scientific evidence becomes available.